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THE ARDEN SHAKESPEARE 
GENERAL EDITOR : W. J. CRAIG 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA 



THE WORKS 

OF 

§HAKESPEARE 

THE TWO GENTLEMEN 



^^ 



OF VERONA, 

EDITED BY 
R. WARWICK BOND 



« 



METHUEN AND CO. 

36 ESSEX STREET: STRAND 
LONDON 



^ 



/'S^?;?,t.'3j^ 



\-,. .., /' 






•f^^^f 



First Published in igo6 



CONTENTS 



PAGB 

Introduction ix 

The Two Gentlemen of Verona i 

Appendix I.— Account of "Julio und Hyppolita," 1620 . 113 

Appendix II.— Part of a Scene from Anthony Munday's 
"Downfall of Robert Earl of Hun- 
tington" 116 



vii 



INTRODUCTION 

The Two Gentlemen of Verona was first printed, so far The Text. 
as is known, in the Folio of 1623, where it stands second 
among the Comedies, being immediately preceded by The 
Tempest and followed by The Merry Wives. It is there 
divided into Acts and Scenes, and is one of the few plays 
to which a list of the dramatis personce is appended. It 
marks no locality, general or particular. The text is 
unusually free from corruption ; a circumstance from which 
Johnson argued that it was seldom played, but which 
Malone attributed, I think with more reason, to the sim- 
plicity of the style, the play being written so clearly as to 
escape emendation. 

Following the First Folio wherever possible, I have 
accepted sixteen small corrections from the Second (of 
which all but III. i. 149, IV. iv. 79, v. iv. 6^ are of easily 
corrigible misprints), besides seven inserted stage-directions 
for exit and many for entry, the First Folio contenting itself 
with the customary enumeration at the head of each scene 
of all the characters which are to appear in it. I have taken 
no corrections from the Third Folio (save comma, iv. i. 49), 
and but one from the Fourth (v. ii. 32). In the Second Folio 
I count sixty other changes from the First, most of them care- 
less errors, though one or two are attempts at emendation. 
The Third reproduces all of these save three or four, and 
adds thirty-five more; while the Fourth further swells the 
number by about a dozen. I have chosen for record only 
a small proportion of these changes or corruptions, usually 
such as might have something to recommend them or may 
have led to more successful emendation by the editors. 
From the editors I have, of course, accepted many correc- 
tions. Rowe supplied the most necessary stage-directions ; 



X INTRODUCTION 

Pope first marked localities ; and Theobald and Capell ably 
revised and supplemented their work in these respects. 
Important emendations in text are those at I. i. 65 ; II. iii. 
30, S6,iv. 116,19s; III. i. 283,320, 357;. IV. iii. 17, iv. 60; 
V. ii. 7, 1 3 ; of which four are from Theobald, two from 
Rowe, and one each from Pope, Hanmer, Singer, Collier, 
and the Cambridge editors. The importance of Grant 
White's correction of the locality of IV. i., and consequently 
of the other forest-scenes, though it was adopted by Dyce, 
has been overlooked by some more recent editors. Mantua 
and its neighbourhood have no business in our scenario. 
Its mention in the text, iv. iii. 23, v. ii. 46, though there is 
no sufficient reason why it should there be altered, is 
probably just as much an oversight as the retention by 
Shakespeare of "Verona" in ill. L 81 and v. iv. 126 — is, 
in fact, a corollary of that, Mantua being the natural resort 
of an exile from Verona, as in Brooke's Romeus and Juliet 

The only change for which I am responsible is the 
shifting of a comma in IV. iv. 6, " say, * precisely thus ' " 
etc. In three other places I restore the Folio reading, 
altered by Theobald or the Cambridge editors, I. ii. 92, I v. 
i. 49, v. iv. 26; I have once or twice slightly altered the 
received metrical arrangement ; I favour an anonymous 
proposal to insert " writ " in II. i. 121; and I propose in 
I. iii, 36 " make it known " for " make known," v. iv. 49 " Re- 
rented " for « Descended," V. iv. 141 « Plant " for " Plead." 

I hope the Introduction and Notes, wherein each fresh 
editor must be infinitely indebted to innumerable prede- 
cessors, may yet contain something of novelty. I am 
pleased to be able to introduce to readers Dr. Batteson's 
ingenious argument in regard to the famous difficulty of 
Valentine's resignation of Silvia — see below, pp. xxxvi, 
xxxvii. To Mr. W. J. Craig, the general editor of this series, 
I am under special obligation for many suggestions, the fruit 
of a study longer, wider, and far more minute than my own. 



Date. There is no evidence sufficient to enable us to date the 

play precisely. It is mentioned in Meres' list of Shake- 



INTRODUCTION xi 

speare's plays already known in 1598, and that is the 
earliest mention we have. Malone detected in the lines, 
" Some to the wars . . . discover islands far away " (l. iii. 
8> 9), an allusion to the levying of soldiers and equipping 
of fleets to meet a projected Spanish invasion of 1595, and 
another allusion to Raleigh's expedition to discover Guiana 
in the same year, or to Sir Humphrey Gilbert's similar 
expedition in 1 594 ; while he referred Speed's " walk alone, 
like one that had the pestilence" (ll. i. 20), to the plague 
which carried off nearly i i,ooo Londoners in i S93. Later 
he changed his date for the play to 1591 ; referring the 
allusions rather to Essex' expedition in aid of Henri IV. in 
that year, to voyages of discovery by Raleigh and others 
about the same time, and to the epidemic of 1583. Clearly 
in a time of frequent hostilities, much exploration, and not 
infrequent plague, these allusions can hardly be held to 
give us a definite year at all. Mr. Fleay, having in his 
Manual^ p. 28, assigned the first two Acts to 1593 ^'^^ ^he 
rest to 1595, considered in 1886 (Chronicle Hist, of the 
Life of Shakespeare^ p. 188) that "the play was produced 
in 1591 with work by a second hand in it, which was cut 
out and replaced by Shakespeare's own in iS9S,"a con- 
clusion repeated in his Biog. Chronicle of the English Stage 
(1891), ii. 176, 179, where he dates the Folio form of the 
play "c. 1595, altered from an earlier version," such earlier 
version, " in which Shakespeare was most likely a coadjutor," 
being probably acted by Lord Strange's men, c. 1591. To 
my mind, while I see no reason to raise the question of 
collaboration, there is much in this idea of the present as a 
revised form of the play;^ and much, too, in Knight's 
argument that if Shakespeare had produced seventeen plays 
by 1598, many of these must have existed in some form 

^ Herr Sarrazin (Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 1896, xxxii. 163) sees in the 
vocabulary of the play ground for supposing that ''this comedy, begun in the 
earliest period, had been continued or worked over later." On grounds of 
style, the use of euphuistic antithesis, the playing on words (ll. iv. 154-157, vi. 
17-22 ; III. i. 146, 1 71-174), and the repnetition of words in inverted order (i. i. 
34, " a folly bought with wit ... a wit by folly vanquished "), he classes it 
with Venus and Adonis^ Lucrece^ the love- and fnendship-A?«»tf/j, Lov^s 
Labouf^s Lost, Richard IIL^ and Romeo and Juliet^ as all composed 1592-1594, 
a fertility to be explained by the closing of the theatres in 1592 and 1593 (73. 
pp. 149-154). 



xu 



INTRODUCTION 



Aietricai 



(however sketchy, faulty, incomplete) before 1591, the date 
at which his dramatic labours have been generally held to 
commence* Seventeen plays in seven years, in addition to 
the Venus and Adonis^ Lucrece^ and the great majority of 
the Sonnets^ seems altogether too much, even for Shake- 
speare/ especially for the young less-practised Shakespeare, 
still subject to the delays and constraints of a more formal 
and often rhymed versification* If Jonson began to write 
at nineteen J why not our poet ? 

The idea of a revised form is confirmed by the conflicting 
metrical evidence* The rhyme test (i in 17) seems to 
place it late, while, on the other hand, we have 1 6 lines of 
the irregular dancing doggerel only found in Loves Ladaur's 
Last^ C&mtdy of Errors^ and Taming, though in the two latter 
it may possibly be a relic of another's work rather than early 
Shakespeare, The double-ending' test gives us 273 in the 
play, i.e. i in 7*54 or 13.25 per cent (Hertzberg makes it 
t S per cent.), as against 4 per cent, in Love's Labour's Lost : 
but since Rtckard IIL has 18 per cent, Richard IL 11.39, 
and Comedy of Errors 1 2, we ought rather to conclude to 
an earlier change from the masculine-ending habit of Lovers 
Labour^ s Lost and Tiius Andronicus than to a late date for 
The Two Gentlemen, The run-on test is apt to be vitiated 
by the uncertainty of the standard to be adopted in count- 
ing* One cannot regard as run-on such lines as, though 
grammatically incomplete, the ear easily separates from what 
follows, such, for instance, as consist of or end with a pre- 
positional phrase or relative clause, nor yet lines in which the 
ear*s demand for onward progress is modified, as so often 
here, by a strongly accented verb or substantive at the close. 
At any rate there is scarce an instance of weak or even light 
ending in the play. I count only 123 run-on lines, or i in 
16.67. Dn Furnivall, however, gave the following table: — 



Lovers Labour^ s Lost . i in 18,14 
Comedy of Errors , . i „ 10.7 
The Two Gentlemen , l ,, 10,0 



Tempest *»..., I in 3,02 

CymMine i ,^ 2,52 

Wintet^s Tale , , . , 1 ,. 2.1a 



^ For *nhe Stmlford man," tliat is. Doubtless Bacon^ bom some three 
years earlier, would quite easily add this enormous literary output to his 
school and university trainingj his study for and practice at the Bar, tiis foreign 
travel, bis service in Parliament, his Essays, etc», of I597j and such studies and 
collections for his great scheme aj be bad made before 159S I 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

But, whatever the counting, everybody is conscious of 
the end-stopped nature of the verse in The Two Gentlemen^ 
and accepts it as evidence of early date. In the same 
direction is its markedly dissolute character, ix. its tendency 
to split diphthongs, to make a dissyllable of final -ion and 
the like, also of " fire " and " hour," to introduce an e be- 
tween a mute and a liquid, as in '' resembleth " (l. iii. 84), 
** dazzled " (ll. iv. 209), and to pronounce as separate the 
-ed of past tense or participle; and to do all this simply 
metH gratia^ with instances of the precisely opposite prac- 
tice in every case.^ Undoubtedly the versification owes as 
much impression of weakness to this habit as it does of 
monotony to the end-stopped habit ; and it marks, I think, 
one who, making the transition from rhymed to blank verse, 
realises the danger from relaxed restraint, is anxious to 
write the new line correctly, and trusts at first too little to 
his ear. It is still more a mark, like the end-stopped habit, 
of a mind not yet so prolific in suggestion that the verse is 
overcrowded. There can be no doubt that the progress 
from thinness to compression and pregnancy, from exacti- 
tude and rigidity to irregularity and fluidity, corresponds to 
a growth in readiness and fecundity of suggestion that over- 
powers attention to metre. But we have here at the same 
time much of the precisely opposite tendency to slurring 
and elision (fifty or more instances), ix. to write by ear 
instead of by rule; an unusual number, for this date, of 
lines with extra-metrical syllables ; and some few which we 
are obliged to take as Alexandrines.* The frequency of 

^ I count fourteen instances of " Proteus" as trisyllable, twelve of -ion as dis- 
syllable at the end of a line (cf. "ocean," 11. vil 32; "influence," in. i. 183; 



final -^ as a separate syllable. 
* I recognise as Alexandrines — 

I. L 30. Coy looks with heart-sore sighs ; one &ding moment's mirth 
II. L 105. I thank you, gentle servant : 'tis very clerkly done. 
II. iv. 62. I know him as mvself ; for from our in£emcy : (but see below (i)). 
and possibly, though they might be taken as prose, 

III. i. 204. Sirrah, I say, forbear. Friend Valentine, a word. 
IV. L 10. Ay, by my beard, will we, for he 's a proper man. 

IV. iii. 45. I will not fail your ladyship. Good morrow, gentle lady. 

All these have a well-marked pause at the middle ("servant" and "ladphip" 
have an extra-metrical syllable, as below (4)) ; and the reader may be inchned to 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

cases like these, and the large number of unfinished lines 
in the play — I count 6$ — support the idea of a later 
working-over of the piece ; just as the doggerel, the end- 
class them with those short lines of three accents found in this play (i. ii. 33-37, 
92-^; V. ii. 4, 5, 8, 9, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29) ; and in Richard II L 
I. ii. \<pr-202. The three-accent lines may pcMSsibly be regarded as six-accent 
lines halved to give briskness to the dialogue (stichomythia), and six-accent lines 
would be natural to an ear accustomed, like our poet's, to the Alexandrines of 
Brooke ; but whereas the three-accent lines are certainly intentional, these 
occasional six-accent lines may be written unconsciously for decasyllabics. 

I should explain all the other cases in this play under — 

(i) Final contraction, two superfluous syllables passed as one — 

I. ii. 3. Ay, madam, so you stumble not uimeedfully. 

II. iv. 87. This is the gentleman I told your ladyship \ , ... 

II. iv. 105. To be my feUow-servant to your ladyship / ^ *^^®' '^- "^- '♦5- 

II. iv. 62. (above — should perhaps be ranged here). 

III. i. 64. Were rich and honourable ; besides the gentleman (second syllable 

elided in "honourable"). 

IV. iv. 45. And will employ thee in some service presently. 

(2) Contraction of proper names, generally final as (i) — 

I. ii. iia Look, here is writ "kind JuUa." Unkind Julia ! 

II. iv. 84. Silvia, I speak to you, and you. Sir Thurio, ("Thurio** again, 

line 117, and in. ii. 30, 50 ; iv. ii. 2 ; and internal in 

IV. ii. 16. But here comes Thurio ; now must we to her window, 
V. ii. 34. Why then, she 's fled unto that peasant Valentine. 

V. ii. 50. I '11 after, more to be revenged on Eglamour. 

(3) Internal slurring, or trisyllabic feet — 

II. iv. 179. Ay, and we are betroth'd : nay, more, our marriage-hour. 
IV. iv. 185. A virtuous gentlew^f^ia/f, mild and beautiful \ 
and, without Alexandrine effect, 

I. ii. 131. Mad<ix», dinfi^ is ready, and your father stays 

IV. iiL 4. Madam, xaaAam ! — Who calls ? — Your servant and your friend ; 
IV. iv. 113. Gentleze'^/;ia», good day ! I pray you, be my mean 

V. iv. 115. And\ mine. — A prize, a prize, a prize ! — Forbear. 

(4) Extra-metrical syllables, before pause — 

U. ii. 19. Sir Proteus, you are stay'd/v. — G6 ; I come, I come. 

V. iv. 71. The private wound is deep^j/ : O time most accurst, 
and, without Alexandrine effect, 

I. ii. 66. What, ho ! Lucet/a ! — What would your ladyship? 

II. i. 114. And yet I will not name it \ — and yet I care not — 
V. iii, 10. There is our csLptain : we'll follow him that's fled ; 
V. iv. 65. Could have persuaded me : now I dare not say 

V. iv. 94. But how cam'st thou by this rwf^? At my depart 
But though many of these cases are thus expUcable by recognised habits of elision 
in the blank decasyllabic verse of Shakespeare and others, I feel sufficient 
peculiarity in the verse of the play to suggest that Fe/ix and Philismena of the 
Kevels Account, or some other piece on which he possibly worked, was written 
in lines of six accents (or even in couplets, like Brooke's of twelve and fourteen 
syllables alternately), some of which may survive entire in The Two Gentlemen, 
Similar six-accent lines may be found in the unsuspected portions of The Taming 
of the Shrew ^ e.g.— 

For such an injury would vex a very saint (iii. ii. 28). 

Here, take away this dish. — I pray you let it stand (iv. iii. 44). 

She says your worship means to make a puppet of her. 

O monstrous arrogance I Thou liest, thou thread, thou thimble 

(IV. iii. 105, 106). 

That seeming to be most which we indeed least are (v. ii. 173). 



INTRODUCTION xv 

stopped lines and markedly dissolute character of the 
generality of the verse indicate an original composition 
during the poet's earliest period. 

The Lylian influence, discussed later, has also been 
urged in favour of an early date. It is seen, I think, more 
in the symmetrical structure, and in the general manner of 
Launce and Speed, than in actual euphuism of the diction, 
though I have noted below a few instances of the latter. 
The play is connected by a great number of links both with 
Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer^ Nights Dream ; and 
some critics, e^. Dr. Fumivall, have supposed it to follow 
the latter.^ But if our play exhibits, as I agree that it does, 
a high d^ree of dramatic skill, there can be no question 
that the Dream stands much above it in imaginative beauty 
and original power; and some of the marks that connect 
ours with the latter may have been inserted at the time of 
revision.* Against the Dreanis precedence, too, is its un- 
doubtedly simpler and more natural style, as Sarrazin 
remarks. In regard to Romeo and Juliet^ connected with 
our play by so many links,* I merely note that Valentine's 
banishment speech (ill. I 170-187) is certainly earlier than 

1 "The play is strongly linkt with the Dream, Its subject is the same, 
fickleness of love. Two men seek one girl; one of the men (Proteus, 
Demetrius) is loved by another girl (Julia, Helena), to whom he was betrothed, 
but whom he deserts for a time, who follows him, and whom he at last turns to 
again. Both couples are to be married on the same day, both girls run after 
their lovers, both fathers want to marry their daughters to men whom they 
dislike, but consent to their girls' choice at last. Hermia trusts Helena with her 
secret, and she betrays it ; Valentine trusts Proteus with his secret, and Proteus 
betia]^ it. We have a Duke and a wood in both plays " {Leopold Shctkespeare, 
p. xxvii). Dr. Fumivall considers our play the later as being ''a great advance 
on the Dream in dramatic construction.'' 

* E.g. Julia's reference to "Ariadne passioning For Theseus* perjury," iv. iv. 
173 {Midsummer-Nighfs Dream, il. h. 20, 21), and compare the surrender, 
" All that is mine in Silvia I give thee," v. iv. 83, with Lysander to Demetrius 
(Midsummer-Nighfs Dream, ill. ii. 164, 165)— 

And here with all good will, with all my heart 

In Hermia's love I yield you up my part 
— ^both noted by Mr. Fleay {Life of Shakespeare, pp. 188-191), who also com- 
pares with less point Valentine's " How like a dream is this I see and hear," 
V. iv. 26, with Mtdsummer-Nighfs Dream, ill. L 190, " It seems to me | That 
yet we sleep, we dream." 

• Sarrazm (Jahrhuck, xxxii. 170) gives several close verbal resemblances. He 
considers Romeo and Juliet the play that immediately ^ri^^^^S^x ours. Certainly 
it has the lyrical feeling and the marks of early euphuistic style in a much greater 
degree than ours ; but these may be marks of the earliest sketch, retain^, and 
perhaps developed as appropriate, in a later production of far greater power. 



\^ 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

Romeo's similar speech (ill. iii. 12-70), which, since that 
play was acted " by the L. of Hunsdon his Seruants " be- 
tween July 22, 1596, and April 17, 1597, can hardly have 
been written later than the first half of 1596. It stands 
almost entire in the Quarto of 1597. 

On the whole, I incline to suppose the earliest form of 
The Two Gentlemen produced about 1590, though later 
than Lovers Labour^s Lost and The Comedy of Errors^ and 
to recognise with Fleay a probable revision not later than 
1595. 



Sources: That part of the play which concerns the loves of 

m^w^s Pj^oteus and Julia is largely borrowed from the tale of Felix 

''Diana:' and Felismena in the romance Diana Enamorada (Pt. I. 

Bk. ii.), written in Spanish by the Portuguese poet Jorge de 

Montemayor, and first printed at Valencia, 1542 (Ticknor, 

iii. 82 sqq^. That Shakespeare read Spanish there is no 

reason to suppose: but in the Preface to the earliest 

complete English translation, which appeared in 1598, 

Bartholomew Yonge, the translator, tells us that his work 

had been completed in MS. for upwards of sixteen years, 

.j^h i^> it existed complete in 1582. He mentions another 

partial translation by Edward Paston, while we know 

further that Thomas Wilson translated the First Part in 

/ 1596: neither of these, however, were ever printed. The 

< wooing of a Court-lady (Claudia) by a knight (Faustus) 

\ through the agency of a page (Valerius), with the same 

1 result of her suicide for vain love of the page and Faustus* 

^ secret retirement from Court, obviously borrowed from 

Montemayor, is the subject of the Fifth Eclogue in the 

Eglogs^ Epytaphes and Sonettes^ iS63i of Barnabe Googe, 

who, from other passages in his book, may have read 

Spanish:^ but Googe's page is not a woman in disguise; 

and the close correspondence with Montemayor of the 

scene between Julia and Lucetta (l. ii.), of that where Julia 

and the Host overhear Proteus* music (iv. ii.), and of that 

between Julia and Silvia (iv. iv.), compels us to regard the 

^ He was sent to Spain by Cecil in 1561. 



i 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

Diana as Shakespeare's real source. It has, however, been 
overlooked that there existed a French translation of the 
First Part of Montemayor's work by Nicolas Collin 
(Rheims, 1578, 8°), reprinted with a further translation of 
the additions of Perez and Polo by Gabriel Chappuis at 
Paris, 1587, 12° (see Brunet). Shakespeare, who some 
half-dozen years later wrote a whole scene in French 
(Henry V. ill. iv.), may very well have read Collin's 
version, which was also perhaps used by Sidney in com- 
posing the Arcadia and in translating certain songs from 
Montemayor which appear among his miscellaneous poems.^ 
Yet it is possible that neither Collin's printed French, nor 
Yonge's MS. English, version was Shakespeare's immediate 
source ; for the Revels Accounts for the period November 
1 584 to February 1 584-85 record, " The history of Felix et 
Philiomena [? Felismena] shewed and enacted before her 
highness by her Ma'** servauntes on the sondaie next after 
neweyeares daie at night at Grenewiche, wherein way [were] 
ymploied one battlement et a house of canvas," a near 
enough approximation to Silvia's window in the palace. 
Until a copy of this lost play is found, it must remain 
uncertain whether Shakespeare used or adapted it, and 
whether or no it contained anything more than the tale 
of Julia and Proteus. 

For illustrative purposes Yonge's translation will serve 
us best. The passages of Montemayor's tale laid under 
contribution are quoted at length in the Notes, from the 
Shakespeare Library, Pt. I. vol. i., with reference to the 
pages of that collection. The cYAei points of resemblance 
are the use by Don Felix of Felismena's maid as inter- 
mediary, and the coyness exhibited by the heroine in 
receiving his letter ; the breach of their intimacy by his 
despatch to Court ; the pursuit of him thither by Felismena 
in male dress at some risk to her reputation ; her lodging 
on arrival at an inn and hearing by the host's means the 
serenading of Celia (Silvia) by Don Felix; her taking 
service as a page (Valerius) with the latter, and being sent 

^ Sidney's knowledge of Spanish, however, seems evident from some remarks 
near the end of his Apologiefor Poetrie, p. 71, ed. Arber. 
b 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

by him to forward his new suit ; the conversation between 
her and Celia about Don Felix' former love, and Celia's 
unfavourable reception of his addresses; and the heroine's 
final recognition by, reproach of, and reunion with Felix 
effected later in a forest after a scene of combat. Also 
Launce is in some sort represented by Felix' page Fabius, 
however conventional the latter. 

Shakespeare's AA&i points of difference are — the changed 
names; the dramatic compression of Felix' first courtship 
of "almost a whole yeere"; the tearing of the letter by 
Julia, and her pretty soliloquy occasioned thereby; the 
fact that, while Felismena's father has died before her 
passion begins, Julia resides with hers (l. ii. 131, iii. 48), 
though from II. vii. 86 we should infer her independence ; 
the ignorance of the attachment on the part of Proteus' 
father, who sends him to Court merely to complete his 
education ; ^ the translation of Felix' grief-stricken inability 
to take his leave into Julia's silent tearful parting from her 
lover ; the insertion of the Duke and the interest derived 
from making him the father of Proteus' new love, while in 
Montemayor Celia is clearly disinguished from " the great 
Princesse Augusta Caesarina " to whose Court she is presum- 
ably attached ; the substitution of Lucetta for one of Felis- 
mena's "approoued friends and treasouresse of my secrets" 
who assists her departure; the deletion of the motive of 
jealousy for the journey, though the weakening of Julia's 
first confidence of her welcome is pathetically evident in 
the course she takes on her arrival and in the melancholy 
noticed by the Host^ — unlike Felismena, however, she 
ventures on direct inquiry about Proteus (iv. ii. 31); the 
deletion of Celia's passion for the supposed page ; the corre- 
sponding deletion of her chagrin and death, and the bring- 
ing of Silvia to the forest to share in the cUnouement ; the 
retention of Julia in the company of Proteus, and the 

^"Perhaps Shakespeare would. not allow Proteus the pretext that in his 
untruth to Julia he was shewing himself a good son." — Zupitza in Shakespeare 
Jahrbuchy xxiii. I-17. 

* So Lear's certainty of Regan's kindness, I. iv. 327, 328, seems to suffer the 
inroad of doubt before he quits Goneril's roof— ** Acquaint my daughter no 
furdier with anything you know than comes from her demand out of the letter," 
I. V. 2-4. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

anagnorisis occasioned by her swoon and subsequent repro- 
duction of the ring, while in Montemayor after a separation 
of two years occurs Felismena's chance meeting with and 
rescue of her lover, Felix faints beneath her reproaches 
and is recovered both of his wounds and his erring love by 
a potion. Shakespeare further adds Thurio and Eglamour. 

The Duke's resentment of his daughter's secret love " Gisniond 
for a courtier far below her rank, and especially the lines ^f^'^- 
III. i. 24, 25, 

This love of theirs myself have often seen 
Haply when they have judged me fast asleep, 

remind Mr. Craig of Boccaccio's novel (JDecameroney Giorn. 
iv. Nov. i) of Tancred and his daughter Ghismonda and 
her love for Guiscardo; wherein Tancred, who has been 
accidental witness of their embraces, entraps and kills 
Guiscard, and sends his heart in a cup to Ghismonda, who 
pours poison upon it and drinks it. The tale includes the 
secret conveyance of a letter in a cane from the Princess 
to her lover. It is worth remarking that after inclusion in 
Painter's Palace of Pleasure (1566), vol. i. No. 39, it had 
been dramatised by five young barristers of the Inner 
Temple in 1567 as Gismond of Salem \ and that, as lately 
as 1591, Robert Wilmot, the contributor of the original 
fifth Act, had issued a revised form of the play as a whole, 
which appears in Hazlitt's Dodsley^ vol. vii.^ 

With, I think, insufficient reason, some independent ''Apollo- 
influence on the close of the piece has been traced to the ^siiic^^ 
tale of Apollonius and Silla, as translated in Riche's 
Farewell (^i Si i) from Cinthio* s Hecafommitki (pub. 1561), 
wherein two couples are made happy — an ending more or 
less imposed on Shakespeare, as Zupitza observes, by his 
design of writing a comedy. The earlipr date of Monte- 
mayor's work (1542) disposes of Simrock's theory that the 
brother of Felismena, whose fortunes, linked with hers at 
the outset, are never followed up, was originally intended 

* The original play was printed from the English MSS. by Dr. A. Brandl in 
Quellen und Forschungen, Heft 80 (1898). The story is included by Dryden in 
1^ Fables or Tales from Chaucer and Boccaccio under the title of " Sigismonda 
and Guiscardo.*' 



XX INTRODUCTION 

to answer Celia's passion for the page, just as the brother 
Paolo in Bandello's ^'Apollonius and Silla" and Silvio in 
Riche's version, indemnify Catella and Julina respectively. 
The later dates of Bandello's Novelle (1SS4), and of 
Cinthio's work, show that Montemayor at least had no 
example for such supposed intention. Shakespeare's motive 
for suppressing Celia's passion for the page is obvious in 
the pre-engagement of Silvia's affections. Later, in Twelfth 
Night, he takes up and developes this dropped thread, 
evidently following, however, Riche rather than Monte- 
mayor. The single point in Riche that may be recalled 
in our play is, that the captain of the vessel, in which 
Silla, having " stole awaie from out her fathers court . . . 
disguising herself in verie simple attire," is sailing to 
Constantinople, conceives a passion for her and, entreaties 
failing, threatens to force her compliance; which a little 
reminds us of Proteus* conduct towards Silvia in the forest.^ 

The With this tale of faithful and fickle love Shakespeare 

s^ary^^^^ has interwoven another of truth and falsehood in friendship, 
/>. the whole relations of Valentine and Proteus, for which 
- his dependence on any original is far less obvious. Delius 
has shown that the general subject of friendship occupied 
so prominent a place in Shakespeare's mind that it not only 
furnished the chief motive of his Sonnet-series ^ — a form 

^ J. L. Klein {Geschichte des Drama^Sy 1866, bd. iv. 785-791) considers that 
Shakespeare took the elopement and double wooing of Silvia from Parabosco's 
// Viluppo ; and that he had before him as model for Julia, not only Monte- 
mayor's Felismena, but Cornelia in that play, who takes service as a page 
(Brunette) with Valerio whom she loves, and has, like JuHa, to forward his suit 
to Sophonisba. Klein relies particularly on the resembUuice between Julia's 
soHloquy (iv. iv. 9^-112) and &iat of Cornelia on the Uke occasion, especially 
the words ** che faroio? sar6 cosi crudele contra me stessa, ch' io medesima a me 
usi tanto tradimento?" (cf. 109, no, ** But cannot be true servant to my master, 
Unless I prove false traitor to myself") : and notes further that while Julia 
speaks of her ** blackness " since she threw her mask away, and alludes to having 
played a part in a pageant, Parabosco's page has stained her face artificially, and 
tias also played a woman's part at Valerio^ request. The connection seems to 
me rather possible than necessary : the brief verbal resemblance cited is repre- 
sented in Montemayor (p. 307) by ** I was a solicitor against my selfe," and is 
indeed almost inseparable from the dramatic position. // Viluppo was first 
pjublished by G. Giolito ** Vinegia, 1547, 8®" (Brunet), and included in a collec- 
tion of six comedies of Parabosco " Vinegia, 1560, I2*>": there seems to have 
been no English translation. 

*Cf. with Valentine's surrender of Silvia, Sonnet 40, **Take all my loves, 
my love, yea, take them all," and 42. 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

hitherto regarded as the proper vehicle for the love-passion 
only, but also received emphatic and varied treatment in 
many other plays, e^. Antonio and Bassanio, Brutus and 
Cassius, Romeo and Mercutio, Hamlet and Horatio, 
Sebastian and Antonio {Twelfth Night), Achilles and 
Patroclus, Coriolanus and Menenius.^ It was a subject, 
indeed, that formed part of general mental furniture in 
the time immediately preceding: it had been handled . 
dramatically by Richard Edwardes in his Damon and'' I 
Pithias, c. 1564, and in prose by Stephen Gosson in his / 
Ephemerides of Phialo, 1 579* The men of the Renaissance 
were familiar enough with the treatises of Cicero and 
Plutarch, but this theme was also part of their inheritance 
from the Middle Age. For the sacrifice of a mistress to a 
friend Halliwell cited the old English romance " Amis and 
Amiloun"; and Professor Herford recurred to Boccaccio's 
tale of Tito and Gisippo {Decant, x. 8), a tale introduced in 
Sir Thos, Elyot's Govemour, 1531, and versified therefrom 
in a dull poem by Edward Lewicke in 1562,^ — wherein 
two friends, Titus a Roman and Gisippus a Greek, study 
under one master at Athens ; Titus falls in love with the 
lady whom Gisippus is about to marry, and Gisippus 
magnanimously resigns his claim, the main interest of the 
tale drifting away from this love-affair. A much fainter 
parallel may be iFound in Lyly's Endimion (printed 1592; 
acted, I believe, February 2, 1586), wherein the chivalrous 
Eumenides, confronted with the alternative offer of En- 
dimion's restoration or the enjoyment of his love Semele, 
sacrifices the latter to the claims of friendship. The opening 
scene of Endimion exhibits the friends in just the same 
respective attitude towards love as in i. L of our play. 

But it is not the faithful but the faithless friend that Lyi/s 
bulks most largely in Shakespeare's work; and, if source ^;j^%» 
be required for Proteus and his treachery, I find one obvious 

* **Die Freundschaft in Shakspere's Dramen " — Abhandlungen zu Shakspere, 
Elberfeld, 1888. 

•Sec Warton's Hist, Eng, Poetry^ iii. 468 (sec. Ix.), and Collier's Poetical 
Duameron, 7th Conversation, pp. 7Sh-85. "The petifull histoiy of ii lovyng 
Italyons" which Warton noted as entered on the Sta. Reg. to Hen. Binneman 
in 1570 (probably early in 157 1 ; cf. Transcript, i. 440) sounds more like some 
venkA ofthe tale of Romeo and Juliet. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

enough, however overlooked, in Lyly's Euphues^ ^^1^> Of 
the poet's familiarity with that novel there is no possible 
doubt: he reproduces its phrases, he imitates its style. 
In it friendship and its conduct are as much a leading 
motive as are youthful folly and fickleness in love ; and in 
recounting the relations of Euphues and Philautus, reference 
is made more than once to the famous friendships between 
- Damon and Pithias, Scipio and Laelius (JDe Amicitid\ and 
Titus and Gisippus, already alluded to. Philautus, living 
at Naples, unsuspectingly introduces his accomplished and 
witty friend, newly come from Athens, to his love Lucilla. 
Euphues falls in love at first sight, and after a long self- 
communing, in which he debates the claims of passion and 
friendship, decides boldly to gratify the former.^ The issue 
and the circumstances differ from those in the play, but 
might nevertheless afford suggestion to Shakespeare. 
Euphues' passion, which is returned, has to be pursued 
without the approval or knowledge of the girl's father : the 
latter prefers the wealthy suitor, Philautus, whom Euphues 
contemptuously outwits. This hackneyed situation is repro- 
duced in the relations between the Duke, Valentine, Proteus, 
and Thurio ; while the latter's name is noticeably similar to 
that of the worthless Curio, the tertium quid in the novel, 
who ultimately bears off the prize. The friends are subse- 
quently reconciled, though Philautus takes a later occasion 
to retort on Euphues, as Proteus on Valentine, ^the tirades 
against love he has himself endured.^ Some parallel for 
Valentine's love-maxims (ill. i. 89-105) might be found in 
Euphues, but they are really derived rather from Lyly's 
Sapho and Phao (1582). Finally, the debated " Emperor " 
of the play is probably transferred from the novel wherein 
he holds Court at Naples (vol. i. 314, 319, 323), reproducing 
anachronistically his model, Guevara's Marcus Aurelius. 
^^ Julio Some notice must, however, be taken of another sug- 

^ita?^' gestion. In 1817 Tieck pointed out* a resemblance to 

* With Lyly's Works, vol. i. 208-211, e.g., "Where loue beareth sway 
friendshippe can haue no shew,'* compare Proteus' soliloquies, and V. iv. 53, 54, 
•* In love I Who respects friend ?" 

* Cf. Works, ii. 92, 93, with ii. iv. 125-150 of our play. 

* Deutsches Theater^ Berlin, 1817, bd. i. ss. xxiii-xxvii. 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

our play in an old German piece called Tragcedia von 
Julio und Hyppolita^ which forms No. 7 in a collection 
published in 1620 under the title of Engliscke Comoedien 
und Tragoedien, professing to be those given by English 
actors in Germany at various royal, electoral, and princely 
Courts, or in important towns. The late Mr. Albert Cohn, 
following up this line of investigation in his Shakespeare 
in Germany^ 1864, has made the presence and influence 
of English actors there from 1586 onwards abundantly 
clear ; and has given us good reason for supposing, what 
Tieck already suspected, that the collection of 1620 did 
not emanate from the English players themselves, whose 
market would only be spoilt by publication, but was in 
reality a body of pirated and mutilated work, taken down 
from the English uttered by the actors and then trans- 
lated, with the view of appropriating their pieces for the 
benefit of Grerman companies, who had already begun to 
compete with their more highly skilled visitors.^ This is 
quite borne out by the incomplete and fragmentary nature 
of the printed pieces, in which speeches are often broken 
off with " &c." ; and in reading the extremely summary, 
rude, and poor Julio und Hyppolitay in which this interrup- 
tion occurs, we need not conclude to a corresponding 
rudeness and goverty in its English original. To my 
mind, the doubt of a connection between that and The 
Two Gentlemen centres rather on the question of date. 
Tieck, and Cohn after him, says that the piece was 
'* played in Germany about 1 600 " ; but neither of them 
offer any precise evidence for the statement, and the single 
suggestion which supports the notion of contemporaneous- 
ness with Shakespeare's play is the later one ^ of its possible 
identity with the lost Phillipo and Hewpolyto, often men- 
tioned in Henslowe's Diary, and first as a piece already 
old under date 9th July 1594.* Except that Julio und 
Hyppolita as it stands is so much the ruder and less 
complicated piece (a circumstance partly attributable, as 

* Shakespeare in Germany^ pp. civ-cvi. 
« First (?) by Zupitza in ikitjahrbuch, xxiii. 4 (1888). 
' £d. Shaks. Soc. 1845, p, 37. Eleven other performances of it are recorded 
within the next three months, with diminishing receipts. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

said, to the circumstances of its German publication), I 
see no particular reason why its English author may not 
rather have been indebted to The Two Gentlemen. In a 
brief account of it below (Appendix I.) I have been careful 
to indicate everything in the least suggestive. 
Munda^s Equally uncertain is Shakespeare's debt to an earlier 
'i^ian P^®^^» ^^ ^^^'^ ^^ which scems to promise a closer connec- 
Centie- tion. " Fedele et Fortuna [Fortunio]. The deceiptes in 
^'*^'' love Discoursed in a Commedia of ij Italyan gent and 
translated into Englishe" is entered on the Stationers' 
Register to Thomas Hackett, under date 12 th November 
1584 (Transcript^ ii. 437). Only two copies of this work 
are known; and Collier, who discusses it,^ Hazlitt, who 
mentions it in his Handbook^ p. 406, and Halliwell, who 
prints considerable extracts from it,* have religiously kept 
the secret of their whereabouts. One of them has a 
dedication signed A. M. reprinted by Collier, who sup- 
posed the initials to stand for Anthony Munday; and on 
the verso of that leaf is a prologue spoken before the 
Queen. The title-page is missing in one, or (as Hazlitt) 
in both copies : the running title is " The Two Italian 
Gentlemen." Halliwell's extracts amount to about 310 
lines, apart from a few stage-directions. He supplies 
further directions, and intersperses brief summaries of parts 
he omits ; but nowhere makes the least suggestion of any 
connection with Shakespeare's play, which is first found in 
Mr. GoUancz' "Temple Shakespeare" edition, 1897, and 
has received support in the Eversley edition of Professor 
Herford, and a mention in the "Little Shakespeare" of 
Mr. W. J. Craig. I append the following argument, so far 
as I can gather it from the extracts. 

Fedele, forsaking his love Virginia, woos Victoria. The latter 
being in love with Fortunio, whose affection she hopes to secure by 
aid of Medusa's magic, tries to rid herself of Fedele by engaging 
a comic bully. Captain Crackstone, to kill him, a plan easily 
defeated by the cowardice of Crackstone, who is captured by the 

^ Hist, Dram, Poetry, ed. 1879, iii. 60-65. 

* The Literature of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries illustrated by 
Reprints of very rare Tracts, 185 1. 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

Watch. Fortunio for his part loves Virginia; and though she has 
hitherto remained true to Fedele, yet when Medusa compromises 
her by placing Fortunio in her chamber and then raising an alarm, 
she marries the new lover, and thus appeases her angry father 
Ottaviano. Fedele, as it seems, returns to her only to find that 
"his cake is dough." Of the unscrupulous Victoria the extracts 
tell us nothing further; but Crackstone is paired with her con- 
fidential maid Attilia. 

In the course of the piece Fedele sings the pretty stanzas, 
well known to students of the Elizabethan lyric, " I 
serve a mistress whiter than the snow," under Victoria's 
window, at which she appears; and on another occasion 
appropriates a letter thrown out by her, apparently, for 
some one else. Of verbal resemblances I note the 
following : — 

Act I. sc. i. (cf. Launce, in. i. 265) — 

Fort. He that discloseth to a friend the secrets of his mind 
Doth rob himself of liberty ; besides, we daily find 
That others' councels will by such in every ear be blown. 
As have no power, when time requires, to smother all their own. 

Act I. sc. ii. (cf. Proteus* simile, 11. iv. 200, 201) — 

Med* Here is the image of a man, made out in virgin wax. 

Which being prickt, or toasted in the flame of burning flax, 
He that you love shall come and throw himself before your feet, 
More humble than a lamb to do what [e'er] you shall think meet. 

Act IV. sc. vi. — Crackstone, caught in a net, misquotes "the 
parverbe 'nobody tarries for the tide'" (cf. Launce, 11. iii. 41) : and 
there are lines by Victoria in i. ii. on the pains men endure in the 
pursuit of woman (cf. Valentine in i. i. 29-35), ^^^ others by 
Attilia on the contrariety of love. 

The above are adequate examples of the regular 
fourteener always used for the speeches of the serious 
characters (cf. the lines which Speed says he "found in 
print," II. 1. 165, but which do not occur in these extracts) : 
the comic characters, Crackstone, a Pedant, and sometimes 
Attilia, employ the irregular dancing doggerel of which our 
play also aflfords some instances: and there are, besides. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

decasyllabic stanzas by Victoria, others by Fedele on 
woman's fickleness, and ten decasyllable rhymes for 
Medusa's love - charm. On the whole, the piece can 
hardly be held contributory to Shakespeare's plot, though 
he may well have read and remembered it. 

Afunda^s For Shakespeare's rather crudely conceived outlaws — 
'fjj^' men who, while regarding rape and murder as petty crimes, 
etc, \?) set a high value on culture, as on presence, profess to dislike 
wanton outrages, and obtain Valentine's ready recommenda- 
tion for the highest employments — example might be found 
in romance ; and it has been customary to cite the election 
of Pyrocles to be captain of the Helots in Arcadiay I. 6, as 
suggesting their choice of Valentine, and Pyrocles' soliloquy 
on his growing affection for country solitude in I. 9 {not 
I. 6) as the original of Valentine's opening lines in v. iv. of 
our play. The similarity, however, is not close enough to 
warrant the citation ; and as good, or as faint, a likeness to 
Valentine in this scene might be traced in Felismena's 
archer-life in the woods, and the attack by stranger knights 
from which she rescues Don Felix. The chivalrous rule 
Valentine seeks to impose, and the allusion to Robin 
Hood's fat friar, remind me rather of other plays of 
Munday — The Downfall and The Death of Robert ^ Earl 
of Huntington^ Otherwise called Robin Hood of merrie 
Sherwodde^ in which Friar Tuck plays a prominent part. 
Both parts were published for Wm. Leake in 1601, but are 
mentioned together by Henslowe under date February 
1597-98. The earliest performance of the First Part 
may, as Collier thinks, be considerably earlier. Here at 
least we have high-minded outlaws, the arrest of wicked 
schemers, and the restoration of the foresters to favour and 
civilisation on the arrival in the forest of King Richard i. ; 
while in Robin Hood's speech to Marian on the charm of wood- 
land life we have at least as good an original for Valentine's 
sentiment, which Shakespeare afterwards developed in the 
banished Duke of As You Like It, The simple blank 
verse, interspersed with rhymed decasyllabics, but lacking 
instance both of the dancing doggerel and the fourteener, 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

need not signify a date too late to admit of influence on 
a play of so uncertain a date as ours. It is perhaps just 
worth while to print in an Appendix (II.) a portion of the 
most suggestive scene ; though I feel it is more probable 
that Shakespeare and Munday alike founded on the Robin 
Hood ballads. 

The last source to which I need advert is Arthur Brooke's 
Brooke's poem, Romeus and Juliet y 1562, to Shakespeare's'^*'^'' 
knowledge of which should be attributed the numerous 
resemblances between our play and Romeo and Juliet. In 
spite of its similarities of style and temper, and its possibly 
in part simultaneous composition, that play as seen in its 
earliest printed form, the 1597 Quarto, certainly deserves 
to be classed as a later production. To the influence of 
Brooke's poem we must in any case assign the choice in 
our play of Verona as scene, the mention of Mantua as the 
place of exile, the names of Julia and Mercatio, the wealthy 
suitor favoured (like Paris) by the Duke, who confines Silvia 
as Capilet threatens to confine Juliet, the rope-ladder, the 
transfer of Proteus' love (like Romeus*) at first sight, 
Valentine's lament over his banishment, the name Friar 
Lawrence, and the rendezvous at Friar Patrick's cell under 
pretence of confession.^ 



Turning from the sources to some features of treatment, Lyiys 
the influence of Lyly claims some further words. It isf^^^^'^' 
seen most, perhaps, in the symmetrical balance of structure, of the 
a point noticed by many critics.^ Lyly was fond of intro- ^^^^* 
ducing characters in pairs or triplets: here we have two 
lovers ; their two mistresses, each of whom forsakes home 
in pursuit of the man she loves ; their two servants, each of 
whom, like Lucetta, sees as much^r more than his master, 

^ All these, as well as the resemblances to and departures from Montemayor's 
tale and the suggestions from Julio und Hyppolita^ were noted in Herr Zupitza's 
essa^, ** Ueber me Fabel in Shakespeare's Beider Veronesem" (Jahrbuchf 1888, 
xxih. 1-17), from which I have denved some points. 

• Mr. W. J. Courthope in the fourth volume of his History of English Poetry , 
ch. iv., does fuller justice than, I think, is usually done to Lyl/s mfluence on 
Shakespeare's early comedies. 



( 



xxvui INTRODUCTION 

Speed translating Silvia's overture to Valentine, Launce ( 
fathoming the knavery of Proteus; also two opposing ' 
fathers, and two secondary figures at Court, Thurio and 
Eglamour. But Shakespeare pays far more attention than 
Lyly to contrast of character and variety of circumstance. 
The frank and forthright Valentine, a faithful friend and 
lover, is opposed to the subtle and tortuous Proteus, false 
in both relations ; and in accord with this, Silvia, though a 
noble honest-hearted girl, is hardly so deep or strong a 
character as Julia ; in her higher position she has both less 
of maiden scruple, and less power in the face of material 
dangers — we are not to accept Thurio's epithet of " reck- 
less," nor yet to accuse her of coquetry because, with her 
flight already planned, she sends Proteus her portrait, — her 
task is to baffle the importunities of undesirable suitors, 
Julia's harder one to recover a lost affection : the opposition 
of Silvia's father is based on Valentine's inferiority of rank ; 
that which Proteus dreads from his may be one of prejudice 
merely, for if Proteus can secure the best recommendations 
at Court, yet Julia has goods, lands, and accomplishments : 
Launce and the servants, while characteristically opposed to their 
and speed, masters, and so to each other, the wit-hunting observant 
Speed to the somewhat simple Valentine, the honest un- 
conventional Launce to the adroit worldling Proteus, yet 
reflect something of their masters' relations, for Launce, as I 
the elder, has the better headpiece though he be the less 
practically efficient. But, to come back to Lyly, we have 
in these servants, not indeed an underplot, a title to which 
^ they have too little independent interest to pretend, yet a 
I kind of comic parallelism or parody of the serious action, 
; first found, I believe, in the play of Endimion to which I 
have already referred.^ It was well indicated by Gervinus 
and Watkiss Lloyd. Julia's silent tearful farewell to her 
lover is comically echoed in Crab's stolidity during Launce's 
lachrymose parting from home: Speed's thrusting himself 
into Launce's love-affairs parodies Proteus' intrusion into 
Valentine's, and Valentine's voluntary admission of Proteus 
to his confidence contrasts with Launce's professed reserve 

^ P. xxi. For the comic parody in that play, see Lyl/s Works^ ii. 276. 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

on the point of love : Launce's self-sacrifice for his dog-friend 
contrasts with Proteus' selfish betrayal of his man-friend, 
and his willingness to surrender Crab to serve his master 
has even been thought a reflection of Valentine's (supposed) 
surrender of Silvia to his friend.^ Such comic parody in a 
measure compensates us for the want of essential share by 
these comic servants in the plot, and for the want of a pro- 
gressive action of their own, such as is found at least in 
Lyly's Midas. In the kind and tone of the comic relief 
they afford, in their friendliness tempered by a readiness to 
take the points off* each other on occasion, they present 
a close general likeness to Lyly's pages; with a specific 
imitation, in the scene where Launce catalogues his young 
woman's qualities, of that in Midas where Licio recites to 
Petulus the personal marks of Celia, whose page he is. 
Lylian, too, as Mr. Courthope points out, are Launce's " old 
vice " of " mistaking the word " and Speed's trick of comic 
logic, of which instances are found in Sapho and Phao 
(1582). Both have the inveterate punning habit, and 
Launce also a touch of malapropism.^ 

But Launce jets, straight as an American oil-fount, into 
a heaven of unforced, unageing humour where Lyly could 
never come ; * and with him, admitted to that equal sky, 
the stubborn brute he adores. " When didst thou see me 
heave up my leg — !" Somewhat coarse it may be: 
Shakespeare had to please a taste which still recalled the 
grossness of Gammer Gurton or the long-past interludes of 
Heywood, and against which Lyly had struggled gallantly. 
But Launce — this feckless lout with a vein of ideality, 
whose shrewdness, sententiousness, and power of description 
are merely the rueful protest of brain and tongue against a 
practical inefficiency imposed by temperament — Launce 
with his kindliness and his cur, and that indefinable lack of 
the smart touch that so distastes the clever Proteus, is not 
merely almost the first * of the Shakespearean clowns ; he 

* On which see below, pp. xxxvi, xxxvii. 
' See note on ni. i. 282. 

* He catches, perhaps, some echoes from Shakespeare in Gunophilus of The 
Wwian in the Moone^ 1593 ? end. 

^ Costard and the Dromios, though of the breed, are far inferior. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

is one of the very best — worth ten of Trinculo, more 

, humorous than Lear's Fool, much better than the Clowns I 

■ of Twelfth Night or AlVs Well, and for original power j 

fit to class with Touchstone, Dogberry, and Autolycus. 

; Launcelot Gobbo has the same spirit, and is the likest 

Launce, but well behind. I need waste no more words on 

a merit so obvious. Speed, clearly the younger of the pair, 

is much nearer the Lylian convention, a compound of 'cute- 

ness, effrontery, and conviviality. 

The six (or seven) letters that figure in the play remind 
us of Lyly's novel ; and a LylUn touch may be seen in 
the successive exits of V. ii. end, each character giving a 
reason for his going as in Mother Bombie, II. v. ; and com- 
pare ib. II. ii. ; GcUlathea, II. iiL ; and the doubtful Maydes 
Metamorphosis, III. ii., rv. i. 

Lastly there are, besides reminiscences of Lylian phrase 
or idea,^ some traces of Lyly's mechanical tricks of style, 
though I think this less a feature of Shakespeare's early 
work than of the comedies of his middle period, 1596— 
1600. I have noted instances at I. i. 27-35, 139, 140 
"mind" (repetition), II. i. t6 "hose" (repetition). III. 
i. 240-242 (antithesis, to the neglect of sense), 356 
"more hair than wit," etc., ii, 20, 21 "your grace" (re- 
petition), 33, 34 "in hate" (repetition), V. iv. 30, 31 
" made you happy . . . makest me most unhappy " : and 
we may class with these the following more distinct in- 
stances : — 

I. 1. 36, 37— 

So by your circumstance { [-.f^,- 

II. vi. 1-3 — 

To leave my Julia shall I be forsworn ; 

To love fair Silvia, shall I be forsworn ; 

To wrong my friend I shall be much forsworn ; 



* Such as "canker . . . bud," I. i. 45-48; "mean" (musical pun), ii. 96, 
97 ; "the chameleon Love, 11. i. 168 ; the pun "tide . . . tied," iii. 38-41 ; the 
changing fashion of courtslup, in. i. 86 ; " reach stars " of a love placed too high, 
ib, 156 ; the lover " spaniel-like," IV. ii. I4, 15 ; and the play on " shadow " and 
substance, ib, 122-125, iv. 202. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi - 

IV. iv, 98--101 — 

Why do I pity him 
That with his very heart despiseth me? 
Because he loves her he despiseth me ; 
Because I love him I must pity him. 

V. iv. 44, 45— 

When women cannot love where they're beloved. 
When Proteus cannot love where he's beloved. 

^ A word must be devoted to that lyrical character, which Lyrical 
the piece shares with Lov^s Labour^s Lost, and, especially, ^^^^^^' 
Romeo and Juliet Lyrical feeling is unusually present in 
the diction and sentiment, and often reflected in the form 
of the verse. Throughout occur passages reflecting on the \ 
nature of love, or the conflict between love and friendship. 
Julia, Valentine, and Proteus are never tired of uttering 
axioms on the subject — it is enough to instance I, i, 29-35,. 
"• 57-59; n. ii. 16-18, iv. 136-139; III. i. 89-105 ( 
(Valentine's maxims of courtship), ii. 67-87 (Proteus' ditto) ; ' 
IV. iv. 88 — and even Speed must reel off" the marks of the 
passion, and Launce discuss the qualities of a wife. Often 
these utterances take a form of metaphor or elaborate 
simile, giving us the best poetry of the play, e^. I. i. 42-50} 
(canker), ii. 105-130 (the torn letter); ll. iv. 129-139, etc^' 
(Valentine's rhetoric about Silvia), 199-201 (the image of 
wax), vii. 21—38 (love as a river); III. i. 222-231 (Silvia's 
grief), ii. 6-10 (the figure in ice); iv. iv. 202-206; V. iv. 
7-1 1 (the empty house), 46-49, 99-101 (the target). 
This is accompanied by Petrarcan conceits, as in ll. vi., iv. 
li. 124-128, iv. 202; by the occasional use of set rhymes, 
e,g. III. i. 90-105 ; by a tendency even in unrhymed 
passages to divide the sense into couplets (l. ii. 51-65, 
II. iv. 1 9 1-2 1 3 (Proteus' soliloquy). III. i. 170-187 (the 
banishment speech)) ; by the occasional intrusion of short 
lines of three accents, as l. ii. 33-37, 92—94, v. ii. 1—30; 
and by two instances of set lyrical forms, the song to Silvia, 
and Valentine's discovered letter which consists of the last 
two quatrains and closing couplet of a Shakespearean 
sonnet. Scattered through the notes will be found parallels 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

of expression in Venus and Adonis^ Lucrece^ and the Sonnets : 
Relaium but the general parallel between the Sonnets and the play 
^s^tft^s, claims a further notice. It has been traced by Delius in 
his essay " Die Freundschaft," ^ etc., cited above. Even if 
we do not admit the very disputable theory of the Sonnets 
as a continuous and connected whole, yet we shall be safe 
in stating that a large number of them have for subject 
" the conflict arising from the blind, almost fanatical, sub- 
• ordination of a worthy friend to an unworthy in the rivalry 
for one mistress." In the Sonnets of course the mental 
aspects of this conflict are more elaborately handled, the 
external circumstances less precisely marked and indeed 
somewhat different : but we may follow Delius in compar- 
ing with Proteus' lines on the demoralising effects of love 
(I. i. 63-69, II. vi.) the many sonnets which show the same 
effect on Shakespeare's friend, with Valentine's whole- 
hearted encomium on Proteus (ll. iv. 62-74), the similar 
attribution of all possible excellence to the friend of the 
\ Sonnets (37, 52), tiie incautious introduction of the friend 
.to the mistress as in the play (Sonnet 134), the friend's 
treachery, the reproach of him more in sorrow than in 
anger, the ready acceptance of his repentance (Sonnets 34, 
- 35), and the heroic renunciation (in Sonnets 40, 42, as in 
the play) of the mistress to the unfaithful friend.* 

Its post- This lyric character of The Two Gentlemen is appropriate 

^EurHest ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ romantic comedies, Shakespeare's 

Romantic earliest attempt to transfer romantic temper and subject to 

Comedy, ^^ stage : the first — for Lov^s Labout^s Lost is too purely 

a play of wit and polite forms to deserve that title, it has no 

pretensions to plot and no connection with romance; while 

the Errors^ though not without romantic elements, is nearer 

farce. Should we not say, indeed, that it is the earliest 

surviving romantic comedy of England, and almost of 

Europe ? Spanish drama was yet a fledgling. It had its 

Bermudez, its Argensola, hovering between the tragedy of 

horrors and imitation of the classics ; it had even the histor- 

1 Abhandlungm zu Shaks^re. Elberfcld, 1888. 
' But see pp. xxxvi, xxxvii. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

ical Numancia of Cervantes (before 1588) ;^ but the great 
development with Lope de Vega came after 1590. French 
drama, save perhaps the Bradamante of Gamier (1580), 
was not romantic' Germany, as we have seen, was only 
beginning to follow in the wake of her visitors, the English 
actors : her own drama was still religious, or at best 
didactic, the " Christian Terence." Italian drama, model 
as it was in some degree to that of England, cannot, save 
in pastoral, be said to exhibit the romantic temper. Ariosto, 
its chief early exemplar, and the reviver of the drama for 
modem Europe, can hardly claim to have breathed into it 
a new spirit: he and his followers were too much dom- 
inated by the antique : their work recalls too closely the 
tone and method of Latin comedy; its interest is social, 
realistic, essentially comic, with extraordinarily small in- 
fusion of poetry. Where so many of our early pieces 
have perished, it is, perhaps, too much to assert that Shake- 
speare had no English example. In his list of fifty-two 
plays given at Court between 1568 and 1580, Collier, 
judging only by their titles, classes twenty-one as founded 
on " modem history, romances, and stories of a more 
general kind." In 1562 Arthur Brooke has seen the story 
of Romeo and Juliet, " lately set foorth on stage," whether 
Italian or English he does not say. Dr. Alois Brandl 
showed ^ that chivalric adventure and enthusiastic love are 
the dominating motives in Common Conditions (lie. 1576) 
and the possibly contemporary Sir Clyomon and Sir 
ClamydeSy and considers the former piece as inaugurating 
our romantic comedy. We may recognise the attempt in 
this and other rude pieces: we may recognise a much 
more skilled attempt, a much higher attainment, in the 
CampaspCy c. 1580, Sapho and PkaOy 1582, and Endimion^ 
r. 1586, of John Lyly. But even Lyly's work is more 
important as example than as achievement. In spite of 
his originality, he was too much of a wit and too little of a 
poet, too much of a courtier and too little of a philosopher, 

* Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature ^ vol. ii. chaps, viii., x. 

• Saintsbury's S)wrt History of French Literature^ p. 224. 

> QuelUn des Weltlichm Dramas in Engtoftd von Shakespeare, Strasiburg, 
1898, 88. cxv. sqq. 
C 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

to do much more than cut steps for Shakespeare ; and, if 
his work is to be excluded, equally, I think, must be that 
.of Peele. I should admit only Greene's fames IV, (c. 1 590) 
and the courtship of Margaret of Fressingfield in Bacon and 
Bungay (1589) as rivals to The Two Gentlemen for the 
position of earliest positive achievement surviving in this 
kind of romantic comedy in England. In this play, at any 
rate, Shakespeare first opens the vein he worked so richly 
afterwards — the vein of crossed love; of flight and exile 
under the escort of the generous sentiments ; of disguised 
heroines,^ and sufferings endured and virtues exhibited under 
their disguise ; and of the Providence, kinder than life» that 
annuls the errors and forgives the sin : and here first he 
lays his scene in, Italy. Naturally, anticipations of later 
work abound. Julia anticipates Portia in the talk with her 
maid about suitors and in thinking to pass for an effeminate 
youth ; Rosalind, in her pretty modesty about the disguise 
and in the swoon that brings on the disclosure (the ring 
and Imogen's fall at the end of Cymbeline are like features) ; 
Viola, in having as page to carry love-letters for the man 
she loves, while she also assumes the name Sebastian, given 
later to Viola's brother. Silvia anticipates Juliet in her 
dread of a match unhallowed by love, and in the other 
points enumerated in speaking of Brooke's poem ; she anti- 
cipates Rosalind and Celia in her flight from an angry 
father to the forest (the name Celia is borrowed from 
Silvia's prototype in Montemayor) ; she anticipates Imogen 
in being wooed with a beautiful song by a stupid and 
detested lover ; she anticipates Cordelia in her father's stern 
treatment (cf. especially III, i. 68-79) ^ii^d in the descrip- 
tion of her in tears. Valentine anticipates Romeo in the 
points indicated under sources ; and links the play to As 
You Like It by his woodland soliloquy and captaincy of 
outlaws, by Speed's enumeration of his love-marks, and by 
some likeness in his relations with Silvia to those of 
Orlando with Rosalind, Proteus' handling of Thurio in 
III. ii., V. ii., anticipates the flattery of Cloten by the Lords, 

^ The other instances are La Pucelle ; Portia, Nerissa, Jessica ; Rosalind ; 
Viola ; Imogen ; and Ferdita, (fVinUr's Tale, iv. iv. 663). 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

with satirical obbligato by the second as by Julia, v. ii., 
while it reminds us, too, of Sir Toby's fooling of Sir 
Andrew : his sudden repentance when confronted with 
Valentine is compared by Hense to the sudden awakening 
of conscience in Oliver rescued by Orlando, and in Duke 
Frederick on meeting with the hermit.^ And Proteus, with 
his dominant intellectuality, his treachery to his nearest, 
and his closing repentance, is the best original for Edmund ; 
though his conduct, however repulsive, has more pardonable 
motives than those which prompt his tragic successor, or 
quicken the dark brain of Richard of Gloucester, on whom 
the poet must have been working almost contemporaneously. 
It is a little severe to call Proteus close-fisted because his 
douceur does not satisfy Speed — stinginess is reserved 
rather for the wealthy Thurio (ll. iv. 44-46) : he retains at 
least the ideality, the impulsive charm, and the excuse of 
youth, and Valentine finds it easy, though perhaps too easy, 
to forgive him. 

The Duke strikes me as a good portrait for this early 
date, most like Duke Frederick in his bonhomie when un- 
ruffled, in the arbitrary or base lengths to which a passionate 
self-will can carry him, and in the rising of his better nature 
against Thurio, as Frederick's does against Oliver, Inter- 
esting little points are his smile at Valentine's eulogy of 
his friend, his reluctance to damage his prospects (ill. i. 
28-31), and his curious probing of his motives {jb. 72-80). 
The meanness of engaging Proteus to slander Valentine 
may be prompted by some contempt for the traitor. A 
certain inconsistency in this character, however, may be 
acknowledged among the defects of the play, hxio'^tr Defects, 
slight one is the upper tower in which Silvia is said to be 
lodged at night, certainly too high for her nocturnal inter- 
views of IV. ii., iii., and in odd contrast with her freedom in 
the daytime in II. iv. : for iv. iv., however, see the note on 
IV. iv. 91. I have already noted Valentine's band of 
polished ruffians. Their sudden election of him as captain 
seems improbable, though the poet labours to show 

^ Shakespeare UtUersuchungen und Studien. Halle, 1884. '< Gewissen und 
Schicksal," pp. 567, 56S. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

grounds for it, and in their clamorous interruption of each 
other possibly suggests their existing anarchy. The Duke's 
pardon of them, rash in any case, is also ultra vires^ as 
they are not his subjects (iv. i. 47-51) — and we really 
must not press the " emperor" — and loses something of its 
grace from the fact that he is in their power. 

But these defects, and the hasty winding-up, may well 
be due to careless revision or abridgment, the most obvious 
sign of which is '.the complete silence of Silvia from the 
moment of Valentine's appearance, notwithstanding a suc- 
cession of startling events in which she has the liveliest 
VaienHnis interest. ; Chief amongst these must be reckoned her lover's 
liona)^of 2tpparent renunciation of her to his friend, that renunciation 
Silvia, which has caused so much discussion. Plainly, I think, in 
view of preceding examples of such romantic surrender 
(p. xxi), the possibly autobiographical parallel of Sonnets 
40 and 42, and the complete fulfilment of the Lylian 
antithesis between the Gentlemen, we must not hastily 
reject this renunciation as quite beyond the pale of Shake- 
speare's intention ; and much has been urged in justification 
of it The notion of Valentine suspecting some frailty in 
Silvia seems untenable in view of her protest of love for 
him at lines 36, 37, and Collier's (or Steevens') suggestion 
that he may not have overheard all is inconsistent with his 
intervention at precisely the right moment. Nor is Grant 
White's parallel, found in Valentine's request that Silvia will 
receive Proteus as his "fellow-servant" (ll. iv. 105), at all 
similar. Better, perhaps, is Zupitza's argument that such a 
sacrifice made to him by Valentine is a method of showing 
us that Proteus cannot be quite unworthy of Julia. Best is 
Lamb's phrase, " a sudden flight of heroism." But in truth 
all these explanations are but acknowledgments of the 
difficulty felt at least by moderns ; and against any such 
intention on Shakespeare's part is certainly Silvia's strange 
silence, and Valentine's emphatic assertion of his interest 
in her just afterwards (line 123). Says Lamb: "Julia . . . 
hearing this strange offer, and fearing Proteus would not 
be able with his new-found virtue to refuse Silvia, fainted, 
and they were all employed in recovering her ; else would 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

Silvia have been ofTended at being thus made over to 
Proteus, though she could scarcely think that Valentine 
would long persevere in this overstrained and too generous 
act of friendship." ^ I believe the true solution has been 
reserved for Dr. Batteson,^ who holds that the text is right, 
and the words rightly placed, but that they are intentionally 
ambiguous on the poet's part. In Valentine's mouth 

And that my love may appear plain and free, 
««-*All that was mine in Silvia I give thee 

means nothing more than " I give you my love as frankly 
and unreservedly as I gave it to Silvia : you shall have as 
much interest in my heart as she " ^ — too handsome a con- 
cession, doubtless, but a piece of rhetoric at an impassioned 
moment, well understood by all present — except one. For 
Julia, anxiously watching in her disguise the progress of 
affairs, hampered by her modesty yet seeking some oppor- 
tunity of discovering herself, the poet, studious as ever of 
stage-effect, has decided on a swoon (a faint that is no 
feigning) as a means of drawing general attention to her, 
and bringing on his denouement. He secures his swoon by 
putting ambiguous words into Valentine's mouth, which in 
her overwrought mood she misinterprets. I would add that 
the Duke's repudiation of Thurio at line 133, 

The more degenerate and base art thou 

To make such means for her as thou hast done 

And leave her on such slight conditions. 



* Tales from Shakespeare, p. 29, ed. 1841. 

' He suggested it at a meeting of the Sunday Shakspere Society in January 
1902 ; it was personally reported to me hy Dr. Fumivall, and is inserted here by 
its author's kind permission. 

* Dr. Fumivall, kindly glancing over these lines, assures me I am correctly 
reporting Dr. Batteson ; but may not Valentine's meaning be rather '< All the 
love that devotion to Silvia lets me call my own, I give to thee " ? V^e have 
here, perhaps, somethinj; of the femtastic i>lay of the Sonnets, e.g. Sonnet 133, 
accusing his mistress of having made captive both of his friend's heart and his 
own- 
Prison my heart in thy steel bosom's ward, 

But ^en my friend's heart let my poor heart bail; 
Whoe'er keeps me, let my heart be his ^[uard; 
Thou canst not then use rigour in my jail : 

And yet thou wilt ; for I, being pent in thee. 

Perforce am thine, and aU that is in me. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

argues much unlikelihood that the poet would assign to 
Valentine a change of front at all like his. 



Sicf^e The Henry Irving Shakespeare gives, from Genest and 

History, other sources, some details of the later history of the play. 
It seems to have been neglected from Jacobean days till 
December 22, 1762, when it was revived at Drury Lane 
"with Alterations and Additions" by Benjamin Victor, 
whose advertisement to the printed version expresses solici- 
tude that in removing "the rankest of the weeds" in 
which by "general opinion" the comedy "abounds" he 
may have "heedlessly cut the threads of a flower." The 
scorn customarily heaped on these eighteenth - century 
adaptations is quite justified in so far as their authors foist 
fustian of their own into Shakespeare's work, and imagine 
that the amalgam will still seem of a piece. A good deal 
of this presumption marks Victor's revision. In I. i. about 
sixty not perhaps very regrettable lines between Speed and 
Proteus are replaced by twenty or more of Victor, which 
tell us that Speed gave the letter to Lucetta and kissed her. 
The second and third scenes are transposed, so that Proteus 
reads Julia's answer before she has received his letter. 
At the end of the scene between mistress and maid is 
another insertion of thirty-two lines of prose, including a 
soliloquy by Lucetta; then the scene is continued by 
Shakespeare's li. ii., and, Proteus gone, 11. vii. is added, 
though if Julia is to set out so promptly she might as well 
start with Proteus. In Act II. Shakespeare's first and 
fourth scenes are made one by the insertion of some thirty 
lines, in which, in spite of the shy approaches made just 
before, the passion of Valentine and Silvia is easily and 
frankly declared and a plan of action decided on. Thurio 
is, by additions, represented not as the dullard of Shake- 
speare, but as a gay fop who values himself on his talents 
in music and poetry. It is to Victor's credit that he retains 
Launce's soliloquies almost intact : but he inserts thirty-six 
lines in Act v. for the purpose of introducing him in 
mortal terror of the outlaws, by whom he is arrested, and 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

reassured only after Speed has played upon his fears in 
another thirty-six lines inserted later to the complete inter- 
ruption of the cUnouement But in an acting-edition one 
cannot blame the cutting of much of the tedious word-play : 
there is gain, perhaps, in the excision of "shipp'd" and 
"the emperor" (see notes on I. i. 54, iii. 27), and certainly 
in fixing Silvia's appointment at the friar's cell for morning 
instead of evening, and thus allowing more time for traffic 
between Milan and the forest; while the insertion of 
Proteus' reason for entrusting his letter to Speed, "that 
Julia's family might turn their fears on Valentine," and of 
Silvia's reason for sending him her portrait, " It may divert 
him from my intended flight," shows careful thought for 
the probabilities, and the deletion of Valentine's offer to 
surrender Silvia would be generally approved then, as now. 
Here and there, however, some good poetry is sacrificed. 

There were revivals of the original play at Covent 
Garden, April 1 3, 1 784, and January 1 790. John Kemble's 
revision for Covent Garden, April 21, 1808 (pub. 181 5), 
keeps somewhat closer to Shakespeare's text; but he 
intersperses a good many lines of his own, especially in 
the last two Acts, and retains most of Victor's balderdash, 
including that which links scenes i. and iv. in the Second 
Act, and the introduction of Launce and Speed in the Fifth. 
He confines them, however, to a single scene, which does 
not interrupt the finale; and he restores the right order 
for I. ii. and iii. Also he preserves Sir Eglamour, having 
first reported him as killed in fight with the outlaws ; and 
wisely follows Victor as regards the emperor, the rendezvous, 
the portrait, and Valentine's offer. 

Reynolds' opera, given at Covent Garden, 1 821, with 
much scenic apparatus and many songs inserted, was never 
printed. We are not concerned with the piece or its scenic 
absurdities noted at the time. Verdi adapted Othello 
without detracting from its tragic force; but comedy on 
the operatic stage is only too likely to lose that subtle 
balance of grave and gay so difficult to hit, to overdo the 
fantasy or the farce, to devitalise the sentiment and run 
into spectacular excess; and the insertion of songs in 



xl INTRODUCTION 

association with the work of a great poet is particularly 
intolerable. The play is not yet included in Mr. F. R. 
Benson's repertory ; but it was given at Daly's Theatre in 
July 1895, with I^^ Ada Rehan as Julia. In Launce's 
part, well played by Mr. Lewis, much was excised as too 
coarse for modem ears, and some unmotived and unwarrant- 
able changes made in the position of speeches, though 
I believe no words were inserted. The scholarship of the 
nineteenth century, the immensely widened circle of the 
poet's readers, have probably made that outrage impos- 
sible in future. Certainly no such offence was chargeable 
against Mr. John Leigh's revival at the Court Theatre 
in April 1 904 ; though his compression of the piece into 
four Acts added, to the two awkwardnesses already noted in 
Victor's adaptation (the departure of Julia immediately after 
her lover, and the elopement planned between Valentine and 
Silvia almost before their passion is declared), that of the 
arrival of Silvia and Proteus in the forest almost immedi- 
ately after that of Valentine himself. With the exception 
of the fine curving coast-line visible from the height on 
which the ducal palace stood (see note on I. L 53, 54), 
there was little fault to find with the presentment. Lucetta, 
perhaps, was something of a surprise; not at all the " gentle 
girl " of Shakespeare, nor yet " Machiavel the waiting-maid " 
of Cowley, but a sober, cheery, portiy matron, nearer the 
Balia of Italian comedy, a rendering suggested, perhaps, 
by our play's parallelism with Romeo and Juliet and by tiie 
consideration that she has to administer Julia's estate. 
But I do not wish to see a more beautiful embodiment 
of the high-hearted Valentine than that of Mr. Acton Bond, 
a gentleman otherwise unknown to me, who by an odd 
coincidence exhibited a marked likeness to the refined and 
handsome features of the Rev. George Huddesford in 
Reynolds' portrait of "Two Gentlemen" in our National 
Gallery. 

TIME IN THE PLAY 

Mr. P. A. Daniel's Time- Analysis, with his notes: New Sh. 
Soc, Transactions^ 1877-79, PP« 120-124. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

"The time comprises seven days, represented on the stage, and 
intervals. 

Day I. Act i. sec. i., ii. 

Interval', a month, perhaps; perhaps sixteen months.^ 
Day 2. Act i. sc. ill., and Act ii. sc. i.^ 
Day 3. Act 11. sec. ii., iii.^ 

Interval \ Proteus' journey to Milan. 
Day 4. Act 11. sec. iv., v. 

Interval of a few days.* 
Day 5, Act 11. sec. vi., viL, Act in.. Act iv, sc. L* 

Interval^ including Julia's journey to Milan. 
Day 6. Act iv. sc ii.* 
Day 7. Act iv. sec iii., iv.. Act v.^ " 

Mr. P. A. Daniel's illuminating Time-Analyses of the plays are 
always indispensable ; but in this case, as he must be aware, the time 
really demanded for the action is hardly consistent with the notes of 
time given in the text Shakespeare in fact made Time in this play 
as elastic or inelastic as he chose, using something of the liberty 
claimed on this point by Lyly ; just as in regard to Place he once 
(iv. iv, 95-113) adopts that abrupt transfer in the middle of a scene 
found pretty often in Lyly, Greene, and before them. Nor do I 
admit that scenes wedged between other scenes successive in time 

* " Time to hear of Valentine's arrival at Milan and success at Court ; time 
for Julia to acknowledge her love to Proteus. For a month past Antonio has 
been hammering on the question of sending Proteus abroad" (i. iii. 18). Valen- 
tine's ''sixteen months (iv. i. 21), if a falsehood, seems unmotived: ''not 
wanted for the plot, but, if accepted, must be in the first interval." 

' II. i. " might equally well come in the following day. It must from its 
position be coincident in point of time either with i. iii. or with li. ii. iii." 
' In I. iii. 39, 75, " to-morrow" was fixed for Proteus' departure. 

* "To allow Proteus to settle at Court," cf. ill. i. 6, "your gracious favours 
Done me." Launce, too, has found time to fall in love, and obtain a " cate- 
log," etc. In II. vi. 33, too, the elopement is "This night," which Valentine 
did not say in 11. iv. 179-181. 

■ "This night" of ii. vi. 33 is pursued through in. i., and at lines 252, 
258 Valentine quits the city. In in. ii. 13 he has " Gone, my good lord," and 
the distance to the forest bein^ "not three leagues" (v. i. 11), he reaches it 
(IV. i.) the same evening (Daniel, pp. 121, 122). With regard to ii. vii., Mr. 
Daniel says, "The position of this scene, enclosed as it were by scenes which 
undoubtedly occur on one and the same day, determines its coincidence in point 
of time with those scenes." 

* "At first we should suppose that Thurio was now putting into practice his 
resolution of in. ii. 89," but we are on consideration "driven to conclude this 
serenade of later date," e.g, Proteus, lines 5-15, has often urged his suit [cf. iv. 
iv. 139] ; he could not pretend to have heard of Valentine's death, line iii, on 
the night of his banishment ; his courtship of Silvia has become notorious, lines 
31, 74 ; and Julia resolving to travel on Day 5 could not be at Milan that night 
(p. 123). 

' In IV. ii. 130 Silvia promised to send the picture "in the morning." In 
IV. iii. 42 she appoints her flight for "This evening coming." In v. ii. 41 the 
Duke says " she did intend confession At Patrick's call this even J* Doubtful 
whether v. iii. iv. should not be placed on a separate day, but the action of the 
play is very rapid (pp. 123, 124). 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

(such as II. i. viL) must necessarily be contemporaneous with them, 
at least when those wedged-in scenes take place at a spot far 
distant A regard for variety in the contents of an Act may have 
led to some inversion of the natural order, where no striking incon- 
sistency was involved thereby. Probably Julia's plan of departure 
is included in Act ii. (sc. viL) only that we may be done with 
Verona. It would be more natural to suppose a much longer interval 
between her parting with Proteus and her new resolve (see below, 
(i)); and I should place the latter rather in the interval between 
Days 5 and 6, making that not less than two or three months, and 
thus giving time for the development in Valentine of the more 
contented feeling, bred by "use," of v. iv. i (cf. line 8, "so 
long tenantless "). With regard to the first interval, without 
pressing Valentine's " sixteen months " (Mr. Daniel does not press 
It), I would make it very much longer than a month. Felix' court- 
ship of Felismena in Montemayor occupies "almost a whole yeere," 
p. 283 ; and some considerable interval seems required for Valen- 
tine's conversion from a scoffer to a lover. Moreover, in regard to 
the time occupied by the journey to Court, it is far more likely that 
Shakespeare simply remembered the "twenty daies" taken by 
Felismena on horseback, p. 284, than that he made any calculation 
of distance between Verona and Milan ; and the same consideration 
is applicable to the intervals after Days 3 and 5. 

Evidence of what Mr. W. Archer, writing of Macbeth^ once 
called "an ideal treatment of Time," may be found as follows : — 

(i) Julia's father in 11. vii. is evidently dead — in Montemayor 
he died before she knew Felix— else would she not leave all her 
property in Lucetta's hands. His death must have occurred since 
the parting with Proteus in 11. ii., for on the day preceding that, 
I. iii. 48, Proteus spoke of " our fathers." Probability demands for 
her father's death, her realisation of her loneliness and the formation 
of her adventurous resolve, an interval considerably longer than 
that required for Proteus to travel to Milan and settle there. 

(2) In III. i. 222-236 Proteus relates transactions which could 
not possibly be compressed into the time occupied by Valentine's 
short " banishment " speech of eighteen lines, which is all that is 
available for them. 

(3) III. ii. 3, 4, Thurio's words, "Since his exile," etc., imply at 
least a few days' interval, which, however, is contradicted byline 13, 
"Gone, my good lord," when compared with iii. i. 252, 258, where 
Valentine evidently quits the city on the evening of his banish- 
ment. Just so the spectator would certainly identify Thurio's 
serenade in iv. ii. with that contemplated in in. ii. 89, did not the 
considerations urged by Mr. Daniel (note 6, above) compel us to 
regard it as given on a much later occasion. 

(4) The hurried action of Act v. requires the distance of nearly 
" three leagues " between city and forest to be traversed four times 
in one night (in v. ii. 36, 37 Silvia has reached the forest and Friar 



INTRODUCTION xUii 

Laurence returned from it before the Duke starts). If, on the 
other hand, we allot an eighth day for sec iii. and iv. — and Valen- 
tine's speech in iv. seems made in the morning (cf. line 13, "What 
halloing and what stir is this to-day?"), and the immediate return 
of the excited and exhausted party to Milan seems less natural at 
night — ^then Eglamour and Silvia cannot be captured (v. iii.) till 
shortly before dawn, and have taken too long over their ride. 

Plainly, I think, while we record the marks of time, we must 
also note that Shakespeare was at no pains to make everything 
tally, but availed himself freely of a dramatic convention which 
regarded the spectator only, not the reader. 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA 



DRAMATIS PERSONS 

Dure of Milan, Father to Silvia. 

l^^-^i^^X the two Gentlemen. 
Proteus, J 

Antonio, Father to Proteus, 

Thurio, a foolish rival to Valentine. 

Eglamour, Agent for Silvia in her escape. 

Host, where Julia lodges. 

Outlaws^ with Valentine, 

Speed, a clownish Servant to Valentine, 

Launce, the like to Proteus, 

Panthino, Servant to Antonio, 

Julia, beloved of Proteus. 
Silvia, beloved of Valentine, 
Lucetta, Waiting-woman to Julia, 

Servants^ Musicians, 

Scene : Verona ; Milan ; and a Forest near the latter. 

Dramatis PBRSONiE] list and descriptions as at end of play in Ff, where 
headed The names of all the Actors. OF Milan] Pope. PxoTSUs] 
Steevens ; Protheus Ff, and always in text. Antonio'] Capell ; Antiionio 
Ff (Antonio in text F i, sometimes Anthonio Ff 2-4). Panthino] Capell ; 
Panthion Ff, and in S.-D. ii. ii. iii., but never in text ; while Panthino occurs 
in F I at I. iii. I, 76. Shakespeare was probably Italianising the name Pandion 
in Lyl/s Sapho and Phao (2nd ed., 1592}, and may have used both forms. 
Servants, Musicians] Theobald. Scene . . . latter] Grant White, sub- 
stantially : Verona ; Milan ; the frontiers of Mantua, Pope and Theobald. 

Dramatis PERSONiE] the only other not for The Yorkshire Tragedy or 

of Shakespeare's plays to which such a Locrine, 

list is appended in Ff are The Tempest, Scene] No general statement in Ff 

Measure for Measure, The Winter's for this or any other play, except The 

Tale, B Henry IV,, Titnon of Athens, Tempest, " an vninhabited Island,' 

and Othello; though F 3 (1664) gives Measure for Measure, "Vienna," and 

a similar list (repeated in F 4, i6i85) for (in Ff 3, 4) ** London " as the scene of 

its added plays, Pericles, Cromwell, The London Prodigal and The Puritan 

The London Prodigal, Sir fohn Old- Widow, 
castle, and The Puritan Widow, but 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA 



ACT I 

SCENE I. — Verona. An open place. 

Enter Valentine and Proteus. 

Val. Cease to persuade, my loving Proteus : 

Home-keeping youth have ever homely wits. 

Were 't not afTection chains thy tender days 

To the sweet glances of thy honoured love, 

I rather would entreat thy company 5 

To see the wonders of the world abroad, 

Than, living dully sluggardized at home. 

Wear out thy youth with shapeless idleness. 

But since thou lovest, love still, and thrive therein. 

Even as I would, when I to love begin. 10 

Pro. Wilt thou be gone ? Sweet Valentine, adieu ! 
Think on thy Proteus, when thou haply seest 
Some rare note-worthy object in thy travel : 

Act I, Stem /.] The division into Acts and Scenes is that of Ff and Capell. 
Pope multiplies scenes. Verona . . . place] Theobald. No localities marked 
Ff. Enter . . . Proteus] Rowe ; Valentine : Protheus, and Speed Ff. They 
enumerate all characters taking part in a scene at head of each, not marking 
later entries or re-entries separately, except Ff 2-4 in some cases. 

Act I. Scene /.] The division into Turbervile's **Thunis" (1567), and I 

Acts and Scenes here followed is that add ** Ptholomeus " (Eupk, 11. 197, line 

uniformly adopted by Ff. 33 ab.), and ** Athalanta," some- 

I. Proteus\ trisyllable, as in ii. 14, where. 

98, 114 ; iii. 3, 12, 88 ; 11. iv. 67, 184 ; 2. Home-keeping . . . homely] same 

vii- 7> 71 ; V. iv. 39, 54, 68 ; elsewhere play, Comus, 748, " It is for homely 

a dii^llable. With the spelling features to keep home " (Steevens). 

''Protheus" and ''Anthonio" of Ff 8. xAa/«^xx] purposeless, not shaped 

are compared Lydgate's ** Anthenor/' to an aim. 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 



Wish me partaker in thy happiness, 

When thou dost meet good hap ; and in thy danger, 

If ever danger do environ thee, 1 6 

Commend thy grievance to my holy prayers. 

For I will be thy beadsman, Valentine, 
Val, And on a love-book pray for my success ? 
Pro. Upon some book I love I *11 pray for thee. 20 

VaL That 's on some shallow story of deep love, 

How young Leander cross'd the Hellespont. 
Pro, That 's a deep story, of a deeper love, 

For he was more than over shoes in love. 
VaL 'Tis true ; for you are over boots in love, 2 5 

And yet you never swum the Hellespont. 
Pro. Over the boots ? nay, give me not the boots. 
VaL No, I will not, for it boots thee not. 
Pro. What? 

VaL To be in love, where scorn is bought with groans ; 

19. my\ thy Ff 2-4. 21-28.] marked sparious, Pope. 



18. beadsman] one who tells beads, 
or prays, for another to whose bounty 
he IS indebted ; the ** love-book," line 
19, substituted for prayer-book. 

22. young Leander t eU,] Hero and 
Leander again in in. i. 119, 120. 
Shakespeare may have known the story 
from Ovid's £p, xix. It is improb- 
able that he knew the Greek poem of 
the grammarian Musaeus, but possible 
enough (though not necessary) that he 
may have seen in MS. the first two 
Sestiads of Maxlowe'slfero and Leander, 
adapted therefrom — it was entered 
Sta. Reg., September 28, 1593 {Tran- 
script, II. 636), though not printed till 
1598. He quotes from it As You Like 
It, III. V. 83. 

27. give me not the boots'] The sense 
"don't make game of me" is suffi- 
ciently established by Theobald's cita- 
tion of Cotgrave, ^* Bailler foin en 
come. To give one the boots, to sell 
him a bargaine," when supplemented 
by the further explanation of the same 
phrase, s.v. Foin — "To deceive, gull, 
cousen, sell a bargaine, give a gud- 
geon," showing that **sell him a bar- 
gaine " is ironical. The French proverb 
b derived from the Latin "foenum 
habet in comu " (Hor. Sat, i. iv. 54), 



of mad, irrational, foolish folk — see 
Forcellini, s.v. foenum ; but it seems 
quite uncertain whether the English 
phrase alludes to the torture of the boot 
(wedges driven between a metal frame 
and the leg), or to the rustic Warwick- 
shire sport of slapping with a boot on 
the breech, as described by Steevens, 
or whether ** boots," used iromcally 
like " bargame," may not mean " pro- 
fits. " No plural in this sense is quoted, 
however ; and to attach that meaning 
here would rob Valentine of his pun in 
line 28. Cf. Lyly*s Moth. Bombie, iv. 
ii. 30, ^^ Sil, . . . methinks you loke 
as pleaseth God. Ace. What, doo you 
giue me the boots?** "Sell a bar- 
gain ** (used Lffoe's Labour's Lost, in. i. 
104) is the original, no doubt, of the 
modem slang " sell,*' and is illustrated 
in Grose's Lexicon Balatronicum, 181 1 
(Mr. Craig tells me), by coarse wit 
among Queen Anne's court-ladies. 

29-35- ^0 ^^ *'« ^^i ^'^.] The tone 
is that of Euphues* " Coolii^ Card '* to 
Philautus : the play's opposition of love 
and friendship suggests Lyly's novels 
( 1 578-1 580)— cf. Introduction, p. xxii. 
The alliteration, antithesis, and play on 
words here are specially eupnuistic. 
** Ifeart'Sore'' is intensive, "very"; 



SCI.] OF VERONA 5 

Coy looks with heart-sore sighs ; one fading moment's 
mirth 30 

With twenty watchful, weary, tedious nights : 

If haply won, perhaps a hapless gain ; 

If lost, why then a grievous labour won ; 

However, but a folly bought with wit, 

Or else a wit by folly vanquished. 35 

Pro. So, by your circumstance, you call me fool. 
VaL So, by your circumstance, I fear you *11 prove. 
Pro, 'Tis love you cavil at : I am not Love. 
Vol. Love is your master, for he masters you ; 

And he that is so yoked by a fool, 40 

Methinks, should not be chronicled for wise. 
Pro. Yet writers say, as in the sweetest bud 

The eating canker dwells, so eating love 

Inhabits in the finest wits of all. 
VaL And writers say, as the most forward bud 45 

Is eaten by the canker ere it blow. 

Even so by love the young and tender wit 

Is turn'd to folly, blasting in the bud, 

Losing his verdure even in the prime. 

And all the fair effects of future hopes. 50 

30.] Sid. Walker rearranged lines. 28, 29 to get rid of the Alexandrine. 
Hanxner omitted y^tW^. 

Mr. Craig points me to a quibble in 42, 43. writers say . . . canker^ etc,"] 

Imogen's ** I am sick still, heart-sick," Staunton quotes Topsell's Serfents, 

Cyn^lifUy IV. ii. 37. 1608 : ** Of Caterpillars or Palmer- 

3a Coy . . . mirth] In spite of the worms, called of some Cankers " — 

nurity of twelve-syllable lines at this *'They gnaw off and consume by eat- 

period of Shakespeare's verse, I am ing both leaves, boughs, and flowers, 

compelled to admit one here as at 11. i. yea, and some fruits also, as I have 

105, iv.^ Cf. Introd. p. xiii, footnote, often seen in peaches." The image 

33. If lost . . . labour wott] Allusion occurs once or twice mEuphues; but 
supposed to titles of Lovers Labour's perhaps the nearest approach to this 
L0St and Lev^s Labour's Woftfte, The passage is ** As . . . the sweetest Rose 
former is now generally allowed to hath his prickel ... so the sharpest 
precede this ; but the identity of the witte hath his wanton will " ( Works, i. 
latter is quite uncertain {Much Ado^ 184). Malone quoted the 70th Sonnet, 
T\oelftk mghty and AWs Well are the " For canker vice the sweetest buds 
fiivotuite candidates), and the early doth love." 

date of our play makes the allusion 44. Inhabits'] Usually intrans. in 

improbable. Shakespeare, as iv. ii. 47, v. iv. 7. 

34. However] in any case. 49. prime] spring, as in Hall's 
^ rftrmmjAiM^^] circumlocution, f.^. HomePs Iliad (1581), Bk. II. p. 21, 

iii&ectly,r as ili. ii. 36. In line 37 it "the busy bees when prime time up 
\ *• what happens to you." first forth leaps " (Craig). 



6 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actl 



But wherefore waste I time to counsel thee, 
That art a votary to fond desire ? 
Once more adieu 1 my father at the road 
Expects my coming, there to see me shipp'd. 

Pro. And thither will I bring thee, Valentine. 5 5 

Vol. Sweet Proteus, no ; now let us take our leave. 
To Milan let me hear from thee by letters 
Of thy success in love, and what news else 
Betideth here in absence of thy friend ; 
And I likewise will visit thee with mine. 60 

Pro. All happiness bechance to thee in Milan ! 

Vol. As much to you at home 1 and so, farewell. [Exit. 

Pro. He after honour hunts, I after love : 

He leaves his friends to dignify them more ; 

I leave myself, my friends, and all, for love. 6$ 

Thou, Julia, thou hast metamorphosed me. 

Made me neglect my studies, lose my time, 

57. To] At Ff 2-4. 65. leave\ Pope, hue Ff. 



53, 54. the road . . . shipfd] an* 
chorage where ships may ride. Verona 
is imagined as a port, though not neces- 
sarily on the coast. In Othello^ ii. i. 
2-26, the "noble ship of Venice" 
which survives the storm is specified 
as "a Veronesa**; and in the Museo 
Civico at Verona is a picture by Cana- 
letto of the Ponte delle Navi in that 
city, with vessels of considerable 
burthen l3ring in the Adige. Just so 
Padua is a port in Taming^ I. i. 42, 
and Mantua, tb. iv. ii. 83, and Milan 
in this play and Tempest, I. ii. 144. 
We are apt to forget how political 
change and the introduction of railways 
have altered the lines of traffic in 
Northern Italy, the great river-system 
of which must long have offered the 
readiest means of communication. In 
Macchiavelli's History of Florence , Bk. 
V. chaps. 5, 7, we read of great fleets 
maintained by Venice on the Lago di 
Garda in her war with Milan, 1439. 
Karl Elze, writing on "The Supposed 
Travels of Shakespeare*' {Essay s^ trans. 
1874, pp. 295, 296), says: "Upper 
Italy as early as the i6th century was 
intersected by canals . . . There ap- 
pears, indeed, to have been a regular 
system of communication by these 



watercourses; the barks which were 
employed were called 'corriere* by 
the Venetians"; and he aptly notes 
Launce's reply to Panthino's warning 
about losing the tide : "Why, man, ff 
the river were dry, I am able to fill it 
with my tears," li. iii. 57. The tide, 
which certainly does not ascend that 
rapid stream, the Adige, so £Eur as 
Verona, is simply that with which 
Londoners were ^miliar on their own 
river. Elze further maintains that in 
The Tempest some land is intended to 
be crossed between the gates of Milan 
and the bark on board of which Pros- 
pero and Miranda are hurried ; and the 
road where Proteus, 1 1, iv. 187, must 
" disembark some necessaries" may be 
conceived as a river- wharf a mile or two 
distant from the Court. Had Shake- 
speare conceived Valentine as reaching 
Milan by sea, he would hardly have sent 
him back to Verona (iv. L 17) on foot. 
58. success"] fortune, issue, good or 
bad. Cf. Alps Well, in. vi. 86; 
Lyl/s Midas y ill. i. 3, " in thy successe 
vnfortunat"; Jeremy Taylor's Hoh 
Living, " Of Contentedness " (Casselrs 
National Library, i. 150), " this suc- 
cess which troubles us will be a great 
glory to God." 



SCI.] OF VERONA 7 

War with good counsel, set the world at nought ; 
Made wit with musing weak, heart sick with thought 

Enter Speed. 

Speed, Sir Proteus, save you I Saw you my master ? 70 
Pro. But now he parted hence, to embark for Milan. 
Speed. Twenty to one, then, he is shipped already. 

And I have play*d the sheep in losing him. 
Pro. Indeed, a sheep doth very often stray. 

An if the shepherd be awhile away. 75 

Speed. You conclude that my master is a shepherd, 

then, and I a sheep ? 
Pro. I do. 
Speed. Why then, my horns are his horns, whether I 

wake or sleep. 80 

Pro. A silly answer, and fitting well a sheep. 
Speed. This proves me still a sheep. 
Pro. True ; and thy master a shepherd. 
Speed. Nay, that I can deny by a circumstance. 
Pro. It shall go hard but I '11 prove it by another. 85 

Speed. The shepherd seeks the sheep, and not the 

sheep the shepherd ; but I seek my master, and 

my master seeks not me: therefore I am no 

sheep. 
Pro. The sheep for fodder follow the shepherd; the 90 

shepherd for food follows not the sheep : thou 

for wages foUowest thy master; thy master for 

70-137.] in margin, Pope. 77. a] omitted F i. 

69. sic^ with thought] i.e. brooding. Ii. i. 219 ; Comedy of Errors^ iv, 

Craig compares Antony and Cleopatra^ i. 93. 

III. xi. I, " Think and die," and Hall's 79, 80. whether . . . sleep] though of 

Chronicle y ed. 1809, p. 5, of Norfolk's appropriate sense, probably inserted 

death at Venice, "he for thought and mainly to get a rhyme with "sheep," 

melancholy deceases." line 77 ; but I leave as prose, with 

72, 73. shipped. . . sheep]Tht latter Camb. Edd. Cf. ii. i. 156-158. 
pronounced "ship" in the West Mid- 84. circumstance] AtidiXtA deduction 

lands (Malone) ; and Halliwell, while (Schmidt). The fun made out of logic, 

producing evidence that " ship" was good or bad, lines 76-95, and again in 

also pronounced "sheep," quotes, Hamlet ^ v. i., may have been suggested 

among corrupt pronunciations cited in by Molus, Cryticus, and Calypho in 

Cootes English Schoolemaster^ 1632, Lyly's Sctpho and Phao (1584), ii. iiL 

"Ship for sheepe." Herford notes 45 j^^., or by other passages of that 

the same pun, Lcv^s Labour's Lost^ author. 



8 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

wages follows not thee: therefore thou art a 

sheep. 
Speed. Such another proof will make me cry "baa." 95 
Pro. But, dost thou hear? gavest thou my letter to 

Julia? 
Speed, hy^ sir: I, a lost mutton, gave your letter to 

her, a laced mutton, and she, a laced mutton, 

gave me, a lost mutton, nothing for my labour. 100 
Pro. Here's too small a pasture for such store of 

muttons. 
Speed, If the ground be overcharged, you were best 

stick her. 
Pro, Nay: in that you are astray, 'twere best pound 105 

you. 
Speed. Nay, sir, less than a pound shall serve me for 

carrying your letter. 
Pro, You mistake ; I mean the pound, — a pinfold. 
Speed, From a pound to a pin ? fold it over and over, 1 10 

'Tis threefold too little for carrying a letter to your 
lover. 
Pro. But what said she ? 
Speed. [First nodding.'] Ay. 

105. Nay : , , , astray,'] Hanmer ; Nay, , , , astray; Ff (a stray Theobald). 
113. [First nodding] Did she nod? Speed nods; Theobald in Pro.'s speech, 
line 112. 

95. " baa^^] quibble on " bah ! " a literal reference to the veil or mem- 

99. a laced mutton] a tight-laced brane with small pieces of fat upon it 

courtesan [but perhaps also as wearing stretched or hung by butchers for oma- 

lace; cf. Sonnet 67, lines 3, 4]; so ment over meat, though I recall no 

Theobald and Steevens, the latter quot- instance. Was "lost mutton" simi- 

ing Nash's Have with you, 1595 (of larly a butcher's term for a sheep 

Gabriel Harvey), " he would not stick "killed to save its life"? In Return 

to extoU rotten lac'd mutton*'; and from Pemassus, Pt. II. iv. i* (p. 129, 

Malone, citing " Mutton-lane," a low ed. Macray), " an vnlac'd Rabbet is 

street in Clerkenwell. Craig notes it best of all," with the same allusion to 

of Phallax in Whetstone's Promos and light women. — Speed's want of re^)ect 

Cassandra, Pt. 1. 1, iii., "And I smealt for Proteus, rightly noted perhaps at 

he loved lase mutton well"; and in Hak- line 146, can hardly be supported by 

luyt, The English Voyage, Pilgrimage this broadjest, which might well enough 

to Mecca, 1580 (Maclehose, v. 348), be ventured by a page of 1 590. 

"laced muttons which willingly fall 104. j//Vy&] slaughter, but with possible 

downe." Cf. Webster's White Devil, I. quibble. "Common in N. of Ireland 

ii., " These politic inclosures for paltry for * gore,' e.g. by a bull" (Crak[). 

mutton make more rebellion in the 105. pound] put into pound, with 

flesh," etc. I think there may also be quibble on sense of " beat" 



SCI] OF VERONA 9 

Pro, Nod — hy — why, that 's noddy. 

Speed. You mistook, sir ; I say, she did nod : and you 115 
ask me if she did nod ; and I say, " Ay." 

Pro. And that set together is noddy. 

Speed. Now you have taken the pains to set it to- 
gether, take it for your pains. 

Pro. No, no; you shall have it for bearing the letter. 120 

Speed. Well, I perceive I must be fain to bear with 
you. 

Pro. Why, sir, how do you bear with me ? 

Speed. Marry, sir, the letter, very orderly ; having 

nothing but the word " noddy " for my pains. 125 

Pro. Beshrew me, but you have a quick wit. 

Speed. And yet it cannot overtake your, slow purse. 

Pro. Come, come, open the matter in brief: what said 
she? 

Speed. Open your purse, that the money and the 130 
matter may be both at once delivered. 

Pro. Well, sir, here is for your pains. What said 
she? 

Speed. Truly, sir, I think you '11 hardly win her. 

Pro. Why, couldst thou perceive so much from her ? 135 

Speed. Sir, I could perceive nothing at all from her ; 
no, not so much as a ducat for delivering your 
letter: and being so hard to me that brought 
your mind, I fear she'll prove as hard to you 
in telling your mind. Give her no token but 140 
stones ; for she 's as hard as steel. 

Pro. What said she ? nothing ? 

Speed. No, not so much as " Take this for thy pains." 
To testify your bounty, I thank you, you have 

131. fl/ <wir^] omitted Ff 2-4. 136- 141.] as five lines of verse Ff. 140. 
your'\ her Ff 2-4. 142. she .?] she^ Ff. 

115, 116. you ask . . . nod] Hence Speed suggests as inadequate a sum 

Theobald's addition at line 112, which seven times the value of the tester, 6d., 

may be avoided by supposing Proteus he has just received. Cf. Appendix I. 

to imitate Speed's nod before the latter p. 1 14. 

says " Ay," line 113. 140. in telling your mind] when you 

137. a du£af] the silver, worth about address her in person (Malone). 

3s. 6d., rather than the gold ducat, 141. stones] jewels, 
worth about 9s. (New Eng. Diet.). 



10 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

testem'd me; in requital whereof, henceforth 145 
carry your letters yourself: and so, sir, I '11 com- 
mend you to my master. 
Pro, Go, go, be gone, to save your ship from wreck. 
Which cannot perish having thee aboard. 
Being destined to a drier death on shore. 150 

\Exit Speed. 
I must go send some better messenger : 
I fear my Julia would not deign my lines. 
Receiving them from such a worthless post \Exit 



SCENE II. — The Sanu. Garden ofjulids House, 

Enter JULIA and LUCETTA. 

Jul, But say, Lucetta, now we are alone, 

Wouldst thou, then, counsel me to fall in love ? 

Luc, Ay, madam ; so you stumble not unheedfully. / v r^ 

Jul. Of all the fair resort of gentlemen a K"^^' ^'*' 

That every day with parle encounter me, \ > 5 

In thy opinion which is worthiest love ? ' 

Luc, Please you repeat their names, I *11 show my mind 

150. Exit Speed] Capell, omitted Ff. 

Scene 11, 
Scene 11, Garden . . .] Capell ; Julia's Chamber Pope. 5. pc^U] pa$^le Ff. 

145. testem^d tfu] given me a tester 63, ** thy palate then did deign | The 

or testem, a coin of the value of twelve roughest berry on the rudest hedge." 
silver pennies, temp. Henry viii., 

afterwards worth sixpence. Twelfth i^cene ii. 

Nighty II. iii. 31-33. 4. resort^ here unusually, perhaps on 

148-150. save your ship, etc,"] Cf. the analogy of "consort," of persons 

Gonzalo of the Boatswain, Tempest, I. resorting ; but an instance occurs in 

i. 26-30, "I have ^reat cOmfort from Euphues, i. 192, line 23, "my resorte 

this fellow : methinks he hath no ana company, and companions " ; and 

drowning mark upon him: his com- the Cent, Diet, quotes another, from 

plexion is perfect gallows." The pro- Drayton's Polyolbion, iii. 359, ** that 

verb in Ray's Collection, 1678, p. 104, resort | Which spend away the time 

runs, " He that is born to be hang'd continually in sport." 
shall never be drown'd." 5. parlel talk. Usually a dissyllable 

152. deign\ take graciously ; the ob- in Marlowe, and often in Shakespeare, 

solete contrsiry of "disdain." The as possibly here, but not in ^i^^fi/ //• 

New Eng. Diet, f\ViOit&Sheph,Kal,y'iz,ii, i, 1. 192, Henry V, ill. iii. 2. 
line 63, " Shee deignes not my good 7. repeat their names'\ Cf. the very 

will," and Antony and Cleopatra, i. iv. similar scene between Portia and 



sc-ii.] OF VERONA 11 

According to my shallow simple skill. 
Jul. What think'st thou of the fair Sir Eglamour ? 
Luc. As of a knight well-spoken, neat and fine; lo 

But, were I you, he never should be mine. 
Jul. What think'st thou of the rich Mercatio ? 
Luc. Well of his wealth ; but of himself, so so, 
Jul, What think'st thou of the gentle Proteus ? 
Luc. Lord, Lord ! to see what folly reigns in us ! 15 

Jul. How now 1 what means this passion at his name ? 
Luc. Pardon, dear madam : 'tis a passing shame 

That I, unworthy body as I am. 

Should censure thus on lovely gentlemen. 
Jul. Why not on Proteus, as of all the rest ? 20 

Luc. Then thus,— of many good I think him best 
Jul. Your reason ? 
Luc. I have no other but a woman's reason ; 

I think him so, because I think him so. 
Jul. And wouldst thou have me cast my love on him ? 25 
Luc. Ay, if you thought your love not cast away. 
Jul. Why, he, of all the rest, hath never moved me.--" 
Luc. Yet he, of all the rest, I think, best loves ye. 
Jul. His little speaking shows his love but small. 
Luc. Fire that's closest kept bums most of all. 30 

Jul. They do not love that do not show their love. 
Luc. O, they love least that let men know their love. 
Jul. I would I knew his mind. 
Luc. Peruse this paper, madam. 

19. ihuslpass Hanmer. 

Nerissa, Merchant of Venice^ I. ii. 30. Fire] dissyllable, as li. viL 22 ; 

Z2sgq. so "hour's," m. ii. 7. Cf. S. Walker's 

9, 10. Sir Eglamour, etc."] the name, Shakespeare's Versification, 3cviii. 
perhaps, had come to imply a carpet- 33-37*] With these short lines of 
knight. Steevens quotes Dekker's three accents cf. lines 92-94, v. ii. 4-5, 
Satiromastix, "Adieu Sir Eglamour; 8-9, 15-16, 19, 22-23, 25-26, 2S-29, 
adieu lute-string, curtain-rod, goose- and Richard III, i. ii. 193-203. 
quill," etc. It is given in this play to 34 sqq. Peruse this paper, etc.] I give 
another knight, whose flight from the the corresponding passages from Monte- 
outlaws hardly justifies Silvia's con- mayor, i.e, Yonge's translation, as 
fidence (V. iii. 6, 7}. printed in the Shakespeare Library, 
19. censure] ^ssso^mon. Ft. I. vol. i. pp. 279, 280: "Many 
27. moved] solicited, 2& Romeo and daies Don Felix spent in endeauoring to 
Juliet, in. iv. 2, "had no time to move make me know the paines which he 
our daughter" (Craig). suffered for me, and many more did I 



12 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

Jid. " To Julia." — Say, from whom ? 35 

Luc. That the contents will show. 

Jid. Say, say, who gave it thee ? 

Luc. Sir Valentine's page ; and sent, I think, from Proteus. 
He would have given it you ; but I, being in the way, 
Did in your name receive it: pardon the fault, I 
pray. 40 

Jul. Now, by my modesty, a goodly broker ! 

Dare you presume to harbour wanton lines ? 

To whisper and conspire against my youth ? 

Now, trust me, 'tis an office of great worth, 

And you an officer fit for the place. 45 

There, take the paper : see it be returned ; 

Or else return no more into my sight 

Luc. To plead for love deserves more fee than hate. 

Jul. Will ye be gone ? 

Luc. That you may ruminate. \Exit. 

Jul. And yet I would I had o'erlook'd the letter: 50 

It were a shame to call her back again. 
And pray her to a fault for which I chid her. 

spende in making the matter strange well enough) to pacifie the £adned anger 

(cf. line 103) ... he determined in and ill opinion that I had conceiued of 

the end to write a letter vnto me ; and her, and taking her letter with her, she 

hauing practised diuers times before departed from me. This hauing passed 

with a maide of mine, and at length, thus, I began to imagine what mu;ht 

with many gifts and faire promises, ensue thereof, and loue (me thought) 

gotten her good will and furtherance, did put a certaine desire into my minde 

he gaue her the letter to deliuer to me. to see the letter, though modestie and 

But to see the meanes that Rosina shame forbad me to ask it of my maide, 

made vnto me (for so was she called), especially for the wordes that had 

the dutifull seruices and vnwoonted passed betweene vs, as you haue heard, 

circumstances, before she did deliuer it, And so I continued all that day vntill 

the othes that she sware vnto me, and night, in varietie of many thoughts, 

the subtle words and serious protesta- But when Rosina came to helpe me to 

tions she used, it was a pleasant thing, bedde, God knowes how desirous I 

and woorthie the noting. To whom was to haue her entreat me againe to 

(neuerthelesse) with an angrie counten- take the letter, but she would neuer 

ance I turned againe, saying, If I had speake vnto me about it, nor (as it 

not regard of mine owne estate, and seemed) did so much as once thinke 

what heereafter might be said, I would thereof," — and so the heroine endures 

make this shamelesse face of thine be ** the longest and most painfull night 

knowne euer after for a marke of an that euer I passed " (cf. Julia, IV. ii. 

impudent and bolde minion. But 138, 139). 

bicause it is the first time, let this 39, 40.] Twelve - syllable lines, but 
suffice that I haue saide, and giue thee rhymed not blank. Pronounce " re- 
warning to take heede of the second ceive't.'* 

, . . with this she [the maid] added 41. broker\ pander, go-between, 
many wordes more (as she could do 



sen.] OF VERONA 13 

What 'fool is she, that knows I am a maid, 

And would not force the letter to my view ! 

Since maids, in modesty, say " no " to that 5 5 

Which they would have the profferer construe " ay." 

Fie, fie, how wayward is this foolish love. 

That, like a testy babe, will scratch the nurse. 

And presently, all humbled, kiss the rod ! 

How churlishly I chid Lucetta hence, 6o 

When willingly I would have had her here ! 

How angerly I taught my brow to frown, 

When inward joy enforced my heart to smile ! 

My penance is, to call Lucetta back, 

And ask remission for my folly past. 65 

What, ho! Lucetta! 

Re-enter Lucetta. 

Luc, What would your ladyship? 

Jul, Is 't near dinner-time ? 

Luc. I would it were ; 

That you might kill your stomach on your meat, 

And not upon your maid. 
Jul. What is 't that you took up so gingerly ? 70 

Luc. Nothing. 

Jul. Why didst thou stoop, then ? 
Luc. To take a paper up that I let fall. 



53. '/w/] Ff i-Z,fool F 4, a fool Camb. 66. Re-enter Luc] omitted Ff. 

55. niaids . . . say **no" etc,"] A my chamber to helpe me to make mi 

araphrase on the old proverb " Maids readie, in dooing whereof, of purpose 

' tiayt and take it " (Steevens). Cf. she let the letter [previously rejected by 



Th. He^ood's Wise IVonian of Hogs- the heroine] closely fall, which, when 

<i^, I. li., "Come, come, I know thou I perceiued, what is that that fell 

art a maid : say nay, and take them.'' downe? (saide I), let me see it. It is 

59. presently'] in the same moment, nothing, Mistresse, saide she. Come, 

Cf. ni. i. 42, IV. iv. 45. come, let me see it (saide I) : Good 

62. angerly] Cf. Macbeth^ in. v. i. Lord, Mistresse (saide she), why will 

" Hecate, you look angerly " ; and you see it : it is the letter I would haue 

Euphues, I. 206, line 13, "we feede on giuen you yesterday. Nay, that it is 

beefe hungerlv at the first." not (saide I), wherefore shewe it me, 

68. stomach] in double sense of that I may see if you lie or no . . . 

appetite and anger. "Meat," pro- and althoughe I knew it well indeede, 

nounced "mate" (Craig). "Kill," yet I saide, what, this is not the same, 

by satisfying. for I know that well enough, but it is 

73-79« l^ ^ paper up, etc] So in one of thy loner's letters," etc 
Yonge, p. 281, "Rosina came into 



14 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

Jul. And is that paper not;|ung ? 

Luc. Nothing concerning me. 75 

Jul. Then let it lie for those that it concerns. 

Luc. Madam, it will not lie where it concerns, 

Unless it have a false interpreter. 
Jul. Some love of yours hath writ to you in rhyme. 
Luc. That I might sing it, madam, to a tune. 80 

Give me a note : your ladyship can set. 
Jul. As little by such toys as may be possible. 

Best sing it to the tune of " Light o* love." 
Luc, It is too heavy for so light a tune. 
Jul. Heavy ! belike it hath some burden, then ? 85 

Luc. Ay ; and melodious were it, would you sing it. 
Jul. And why not you ? 

Luc. I cannot reach so high. 

Jul. Let *s see your song. How now, minion ! 
Luc. Keep tune there still, so you will sing it out : 

And yet methinks I do not like this tune. 90 

Jul. You do not? 

Luc. No, madam ; 'tis too sharp. 
Jul. You, minion, are too saucy. 

Luc. Nay, now you are too flat. 

And mar the concord with too harsh a descant : 95 

83. & love] Theobald ; O, Loue Ff i, 2 ; O Lave Ff 3, 4. 88. [Gives 
her a box on the ear] Hanmer. 92. *tis] Ff, it is Camb., arranging as one 
line with preceding. 

81. Give me a note: . • . setlsti it 94* >^^] downright, with musical 

to notes for me, with play on *' setting quibble, i. 

the tune," i,e, show me the way, 95. descanf\ harmony added to a 

answer the letter as if your own. Line melody. Staunton quotes Morle/s 

82 changes the sense of "set" to "set Introduction to Pnutical Music, 1597 : 

store by. ' " Descant . . . sometime they take it 

83. tune of ** Light o* love"] for the whole harmony of many voices ; 
Steevehs notes it as mentioned by others sometime, for one of the voices 
Margaret, Much Ado, iii. iv. 38, and or ptarts. Last of all they take it for 
by the Gaoler's daughter in Two Noble singing; a pairt extempore upon a plain 
Kinsmen, v. ii. 54 ; and Staunton song, m which sense we commonly use 
refers to "A very proper dittie to the it." The same metaphor is found in 
tune of Lightie Love," printed in 1570. Lyly's Euphues, i. 236, line 3, " if 

84. heavy] serious, or perhaps of its thou haddest . . . learned the first 
lamenting "forlorn" purport. noat of Deskant, thou wouldest haue 

85. burden] refrain, properly a dron- kept thy Sol fa to thyself," i,e. not 
ing bass (Fr. bourdon) or underpart have marred your love-happiness by 
maintained throughout the song. See introducing a third part, by mtrodudng 
Chappeirs Popular Music of the Olden me to Ludlla. 

Time. 



SC. II.] 



OF VERONA 



15 



There wanteth but a mean to fill your song. 

Jul. The mean is drown'd with your unruly bass. 

Luc. Indeed, I bid the base for Proteus. 

Jul. This babble shall not henceforth trouble me. 

Here is a coil with protestation ! \Tears the letter. lOO 
Go get you gone, and let the papers lie : 
You would be fingering them, to anger me. 

Luc. She makes it strange ; but she would be best pleased 
To be so anger'd with another letter. \JS,xit. 

Jul. Nay, would I were so anger'd with the same! 105 

hateful hands, to tear such loving words ! 
Injurious wasps, to feed on such sweet honey, 
And kill the bees, that yield it, with your stings ! 

1 '11 kiss each several paper for amends. 

Look, here is writ " kind Julia." Unkind Julia ! no 
As in revenge of thy ingratitude, 

97. your\you F I. 98. bid the] Ff I, 2 ; bid thee Ff 3, 4. 99. babbW] 

so spelt Ff. ido. [Tears the letter] Tears it Pope. 103. best pleased] 

pleased better CoWitT MS. 104. Exit] omitted F i. 



96, 97. mean] musically the inter- 
mediate part (alto or tenor) between 
treble and bass — cf. L^l/s Gallathea, 
V. iii. 188, " Ven. Csia you sing? 
/iaffe. Baselie. Dicke. Meanely. 
Robin. If they duble it, I will treble 
it" — ^but in line 96 it also means the 
correct pitch of any note, intermediate 
between sharp or Hat, referring to lines 
92-94. 

98. bid the base] of a challenge to a 
• contest of speed in the game " Prison- 
ers' Base," the loser becoming a 
"prisoner"; then, generally, of any 
challenge or championing, "I try to 
make you captive to Proteus' love," or 
simply, " I stand up for Proteus." Cf. 
Ventis and Adonis^ 303, 304 : 

"To bid the wind a base he now 
prepares, 
And whether he run or fly they 
know not whether," 

(Warburton, substantially). 
In The Shepheardes KaUnder (Oct. 
line 5) of singing or piping competi- 
tions (?), " Whilome thou wont the shep- 
heards laddes to leade | In rymes, m 
ridles, and in bydding base." 

100. Here is a coil^ etc.] what a fiiss 
with love - protestations I Cf. Much 
Ado, V. il 98, "Vender's old coil at 



home!" New Eng. Dict.*s earliest 
instance is from Drant's fforace, 1567 — 
no origin suggested; "coil" (of rope) 
seems later. Cf. Death of Robert ^ Earl 
0/ Ifuntfy [HazMtt's Vodsley, viii. 245), 
"what a coil is here with your con- 
fession ! " 

103. mahes it strange] Occurs in the 
passage quoted from Yonge, on line 
34 : frequent of pretence of ignorance 
or indifference. In Twelfth Night, 
IV. i. 14, the Clown bids Sebastian, 
who will not recognise him, "ungird 
thy strangeness." Craig quotes Aude- 
ley's FrcUemity of Vacabondes, 1575 
(New Sh. Soc., p. 8), "makynge it 
straunge at the first" 

105. so angered, etc.] i,e. would it 
still existed, to inspire no more anger 
than now ; Staunton would assign me 
line to Lucetta with emphasis on 
"I." 

107. Injurious] unjust, as S Henry 
VI. III. iii. loi, "by whose injurious 
doom My . . . brother . . . was done 
to death " (Schmidt). Halliwell quotes 
a long passage from Butler's Feminine 
Monarchie, or the Histori of Bees, 
1634, in witness of wasps' depreda- 
tions on honey and their slaughter of 
bees. 



16 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

I throw thy name against the brubing stones, 

Trampling contemptuously on thy disdain. 

And here is writ " love-wounded Proteus." 

Poor wounded name ! my bosom, as a bed, 115 

Shall lodge thee, till thy wound be throughly heal'd ; 

And thus I search it with a sovereigjn kiss. 

But twice or thrice was " Proteus " written down. 

Be calm, good wind, blow not a word away. 

Till I have found each letter in the letter, 120 

Except mine own name: that some whirlwind 

bear 
Unto a ragged, fearful-hanging rock, 
And throw it thence into the raging sea ! 
Lo, here in one line is his name twice writ, 
" Poor forlorn Proteus, passionate Proteus, 125 

To the sweet Julia " : — that I '11 tear away. — 
And yet I will not, sith so prettily 
He couples it to his complaining names. 
Thus will I fold them, one upon another : 
Now kiss, embrace, contend, do what you will. 130 

Re-enter Lucetta. 

Luc. Madam, dinner is ready, and your father stays. 
JuL Well, let us go. 

Luc. What, shall these papers lie like tell-tales here ? 
JuL If you respect them, best to take them up. 

122, fearful-hanging] T^fXvu&f fearfully hanging Yi. 130. Re-enter Luc] 
omitted F i. 131. Madam^ dinner . . .] as one line Ff, Madam in 

separate line Ilanmer. 

115. my bosom, as a bed, etcJ\ Halli- the wounds fair healed . . . likewise 

well quotes Venus and Adonis y "Here he searched his body of other three 

was thy father's bed, here in my breast." wounds, and they healed in likewise." 

117. search] probe (medical), with 122. ragged] rugged, as Faerie 

purpose of cleansing; so ** sovereign," Queene, i. v. 38, ** ragged cliflfe." 

of a remedy. Craig quotes Bacon's 122. fearful-hanging] Craig com- 

Essay of Expense, *^^o\m^cajiTiot he poxes Lear, iv. i. 77, Henry V. iii. 

cured without searching"; and T. 1. 12, and Shelley's C^««', iii. i. 247 : 

Heywood's Fair Maid of the West, 1 1. **a mighty rock 

iv., "being searcht | He died at the Which has for unimagmable years 

third dressing." Cf. his note on Sustained itself with terror and 

" untented," Lear, i. iv. 321. Common with toil 

in Malory, e,g, Bk. xix. chap, xii., Over a gulf, and with the agony 

" he ransacked the three wounas, that With which it clings seems slowly 

they bled a little, and forthwith 2^ coming down." 



sera.] OF VERONA 17 

Luc. Nay, I was taken up for laying them down : 135 

Yet here they shall not lie, for catching cold. 

Jul. I see you have a month's mind to them. 

Luc. Ay, madam, you may say what sights you see ; 
I see things too, although you judge I wink. 

Jul. Come, come; will't please you go ? [Exeunt. 140 



SCENE III. — The Same. Antonio's House. 

Enter Antonio and Panthino. 

Ant. Tell me, Panthino, what sad talk was that 

Wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? 

Pan. Twas of his nephew Proteus, your son. 

Ant. Why, what of him ? 

Pan. He wonder'd that your lordship 

Would suffer him to spend his youth at home, 5 

While other men, of slender reputation. 
Put forth their sons to seek preferment out : 
Some to the wars, to try their fortune there ; 
Some to discover islands far away ; 
Some to the studious universities. 10 

For any, or for all these exercises. 
He said that Proteus your son was meet ; 
And did request me to importune you 
To let him spend his time no more at home, 

Scene ///. Antonio's House] Theobald. i. Panthtm] Ff i, 2 (and so S.-D.); 
Panthim Ff 3, 4 (and S.-D.). 

135. taken up] chidden, quite com- for fruit, etc., natural to women in the 
mon, e,g. Ascham's Toxophilus (ed. last month of pregnancy. Staunton 
Arbcr, p. 72), "perceyuinge them tobe quotes Euphius^ 11. 217, **ende his 
espyes, toke them up sharpely." lyfe in Athens, although he hadde a 

136. for catching cold\ flie preventive moneths minde to England." 
"for," as in Lvl/s Mother Bomlne, « 

I. i. 47, a spoiled youth " yet lies with ^^^^ '"' 

his moUier for catching cold." i. sad\ serious ; As You Like It^ iii. 

137. montWs mind] strong desire or ii. 227, ** Nay, the devil take mocking ; 
affection ; a phrase transferred from its speak, sad brow and true maid." 
proper sense of memorial prayers for ^, 12. Proteus] trisyllable; see note 
the dead, an affectionate remembrance i. 1. i. 

paid a month after decease (which the 7. Put forth their sons] Edmund in 

^i\t o{'^2i:^*s Martit^s Months Minde^ Lear, i. 1. 34, "hath been out nine 

1589, shows to be still in contem- years, and away he shall again" 

porary use), to the fimciful longing (Craig). 



18 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [agti. 



Which would be great impeachment to his age, i S 

In having known no travel in his youth. 

Anf. Nor need'st thou much importune me to that 
Whereon this month I have been hammering. 
I have considered well his loss of time, 
' And how he cannot be a perfect man, 20 

I Not being tried and tutored in the world : 
Experience is by industry achieved. 
And perfected by the swift course of time. 
Then, tell me, whither were I best to send him ? 

Pan, I think your lordship is not ignorant 2 5 

How his companion, youthful Valentine, 
Attends the Emperor in his royal court. 

Anf. I know it well. 

Pan. 'Twere good, I think, your lordship sent him thither : 
There shall he practise tilts and tournaments, 30 

Hear sweet discourse, converse with noblemen, 



15. impeachment'] reproach, or 
ground of such. 

18. hammering] of planning, beating 
into shape in the brain. So Lyly's Mother 
Bomhie^ ii. i. 59, "my head is foil of 
hammers"; and in. iv. 123, **heare 
of a wedding fresh a beating^ 

24. whither were I best . . . ?] 
Antonio is perhaps meant for one who 
tries to make up by obstinacy and 
peremptoriness, lines 65, 71, 89, for a 
conscious lack of initiative. Advised 
to send his son away, he pretends the 
idea is his own (line 18) ; but has no 
plan, and merely imitates the course 
pursued with Valentine, even down to 
the detail of allowance, lines 68, 69. 
But Valentine, and his neighbours in 
general, respect him, li. iv. 55-60. 

27. the Emperor . . . court] With 
needless learning Monck Mason pointed 
out that Charles v. (emperor 1519-56) 
sometimes resided at Milan during his 
wars with Francis I., and Steevens 
laboured to show that a duke might be 
present there contemporaneously with 
an emperor. On the death of Franc. 
Sforza (duke 1525-35), the quarrel 
between Charles and Francis was 
renewed, until in 1549 Milan passed 
under the direct control of the former, 
who invested his son Philip with the 



duchy. But a comparison of i. iii. 
41, 58 with n. iv. 76-79 shows clearly 
that Shakespeare never meant to dis- 
tinguish the titles or the men; but 
gave to the emperor at Milan, as 
to Theseus at Athens or Solinus at 
Ephesus, his favourite stage title of 
"duke" or "ruler," without reference 
to his actual title or rank. In the 
Folio he is Duke in the list o{ dramatis 
personcBy in all directions for entry, and 
m all prefixes to his speeches ; while in 
two of these, 11. iv. 76, 77, v. iv. 138, 
the title of emperor is stated or implied. 
But Shakespeare is no more thinking 
of history here, than in his "duke" of 
Verona, iv. i. 49. His "emperor" 
might have been suggested by "the 
great Princesse Augusta Csesarina's 
court" in the passage from Yonge 
quoted below, but is more likely simply 
borrowed from the Emperor's Court 
fixed at Naples in Euphues^ I. 314, 
319, 323, where Lyly, careless of 
anachronism, had placed it, imitating 
that of Marcus Aurelius at Rome 
in his model Guevara. See Introduc- 
tion, pp. xxi-xxii. 

30. tilts and tournaments] the former 
between two knights, the latter between 
two parties of knights, or at least in- 
cluding several combats of pairs. 



sc.iii.] OF VERONA 19 

And be in eye of every exercise 

Worthy his youth and nobleness of birth. 
Ant I like thy counsel ; well hast thou advised : 

And that thou mayst perceive how well I like it 35 

The execution of it shall make known. 

Even with the speediest expedition 

I will dispatch him to the Emperor's court. 
Pan, To-morrow, may it please you, Don Alphonso, 

With other gentlemen of good esteem, 40 

Are journeying to salute the Emperor, 

And to commend their service to his will. 
Ant Good company ; with them shall Proteus go : 

And, in good time ! now will we break with him. 

Enter PROTEUS. 

Pro. Sweet love! sweet lines! sweet life! 45 

Here is her hand, the agent of her heart ; 
Here is her oath for love, her honour's pawn. 
O, that our fathers would applaud our loves, 

36. make hunm] qy. mctke it known. 44. Enter Proteus] F 2. 45. life /] 
life! sweet Julia Capell. 

32. be in eye of\ have opportunity of spend his youth idly at home, where 

witnessing ; cf. Merchant of Venice^ i. nothing could be learned but examples 

i» I37> "stand . . • within the eye of of vice, whereof the verie same idlenes 

honour," ue, do not lose sight of it. (he said) was the only Mistresse. He 

35^ S^* '^^ ^^^*^ • • • ^^^ kno7mt\ went away so pensiue, that his great 

"that . . . perceive," grammatically greefe would not suffer him to acquaint 

superfluous, ceases to be so if ** it " be me with his departure; which when I 

supplied before ** known" ; but I leave knew how sorrowfiill I remained," etc. 

the text as probably one of the many This may surest Julia's mute farewell, 

cases of carelessly changed construction 11. ii. 16, 17. 

for which Dr. Abbott finds a variety 39. Don Alphonso"] general title of 

of reasons. Sh, Grammar, sees. AP^sqq, rank, but no doubt suggested by the 

38, / will dispatch him, etc] There Spanish tale. Cf. ** Don Antonio," 

is no hint that Antonio knows of 11. iv. 54. 

or suspects Proteus' attachment, which 44. in good time /] h propos — often 

is the reason of Don Felix' forced of people arriving opportunely, as 

departure in Montemayor, p. 283 : **of Richard III, in. i. 95, "Now, in good 

these our mutuall loues (wnen as now time, here comes the Duke of York." 

they were most assured) his father had 44. bree^ with him] break our 

some intelligence, and whosoever re- purpose to him; cf. in. i. 59, **I am 

uealed them first, perswaded him so to break with thee of some affairs." 

cunningly, that his father (fearing lest 48. O, that our fathers^ etc] Cf. lines 

he would haue married me out of hand) 80, 81. Antonio's opposition seems to be 

sent him to the great Princesse Augusta merely dreaded by Proteus, not declared. 

Csesarina's court, telling him, it was Zupitza suggested that the poet deleted 

not meete that a yoong Gentleman, and the fathers knowledge to deprive 

of so noble a house as he was, should Proteus of the excuse that his fiiithless- 






20 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acti. 

To seal our happiness with their consents ! 

heavenly Julia 1 50 
Ant How now? what letter are you reading there? 

Pro. May 't please your lordship, 'tis a word or two 

Of commendations sent from Valentine, 

Delivered by a friend that came from him. 
Ant Lend me tiie letter; let me see what news. 55 

Pro. There is no news, my lord ; but that he writes 

How happily he lives, how well beloved, 

And daily graced by the Emperor ; 

Wishing me with him, partner of his fortune. 
Ant. And how stand you affected to his wish? 60 

Pro. As one relying on your lordship's will, 

And not depending on his friendly wish. 
Ant. My will is something sorted with his wish. 

Muse not that I thus suddenly proceed ; 

For what I will, I will, and there an end. 65 

1 am resolved that thou shalt spend some time 
With Valentinus in the Emperor's court : 
What maintenance he from his friends receives. 
Like exhibition thou shalt have from me. 
To-morrow be in readiness to go : 70 
Excuse it not, for I am peremptory. 

Pro. My lord, I cannot be so soon provided : 
Please you, deliberate a day or two. 

67. VaUntinus F i, Valentino Ff 2-4. 

ness was in accord with his parent's 63. sorted wtth'\ fitted to, corre- 
wish. Of Julia's father, with whom spondent with ; "sorted to no proof," 
she is living in i. ii. 131, we hear Taming^ iv. iii, 43. 
no more ; and from ii. vii. S6, 87, 69. exAiditum] allowance for main- 
should infer his death. In Montemayor, tenance, a term surviving only at 
p. 277, Felismena's £sither is dead before schools or universities. Ci. William 
her passion begins. Barker's examination of September 15, 

51. what letter, etc.] The incident, 1571 {Muxdiny Burgkley Papers, p. g$), 

while illustrating Proteus' resource "the Queene's Majestie hir Idother, 

in deceit, and perhaps his moral gave me Exibition at my first coming 

cowardice, anticipates the Duke's to Cambridge." Rann quotes JiTing 

capture of Valentine's verses to Silvia. Lear, 1. ii. 25, " Confined to exhibi- 

53. commendations'] remembrances, tion," 

a term derived from the usual form of 71. peremptory] Accented on first 

commencing a letter, e.g. ** Right syllable, as Tbmm^, n. i. 132, *' I am 

WddupfiiU hosbondt I reoommand me as peremptory as she proud-minded," 

' lAsiam LttttfTSt ed. Gairdner, and always at this date ; c£ Marlowe's 

Tamdurlaine, passim. 



SC. III.] 



OF VERONA 



21 



Ant 



Pro. 



Look, what thou want'st shall be sent after thee : 

No more of stay ! to-morrow thou must go. 7 5 

Come on, Panthino : you shall be employed 

To hasten on his expedition. [Exeunt Ant. and Pan. 

Thus have I shunn'd the fire for fear of burning, 

And drench'd me in the sea, where I am drown'd. 

I fear'd to show my father Julia's letter, 80 

Lest he should take exceptions to my love ; 

And with the vantage of mine own excuse 

Hath he excepted most against my love, 

O, how this spring of love resembleth 

The uncertain glory of an April day, 85 

Which now shows all the beauty of the sun. 

And by and by a cloud takes all away 1 

Re-enter Panthino. 

Pan. Sir Proteus, your father calls for you : 
He is in haste ; therefore, I pray you, go. 

Pro. Why, this it is : my heart accords thereto, 90 

And yet a thousand times it answers " no." \Exeunt. 

76. Panthinol Panthion Ff 3, 4. 77. Exeunt . . .] Rowe. 84. resem- 
blethi resembleth well Pope. 87. Re-enter Pan.] omitted F i. 88. father\ 
Fathers F i. 



%i. take exceptions'] make objections ; 
cf. line 83 and 11. iv. 155, v. ii. 3. In 
T. Heywood's Fortune by Land and 
Sea, I. i., "Sorrv, sir boy, you will not 
take exceptions," i.e, resent my insult- 
ing words (Craig). 

83. excepted . . . against] opposed, 
made objections in a practical v/oy. 
The ordinary sense is found ii. iv. 155. 

84. resembleth] a quadrisyllable, as 
Theobald perceived, rejecting Pope's 
addition. The Elizabethan poets fre- 
quently insert a vowel in pronunciation 
between a liquid and a preceding mute ; 
see Sid. Walker's Shakespeare's Ver- 
sificcUion^ pp. 7 sqq. Cf. II. iv. 209, 
** dazzled " (trisyllable) ; Marlowe's 
Jew of Malta, I v. v. 51, "Commend 



me to him, sir, most humbly** (trisyl- 
lable) ; Thos. Heywood's the English 
Traveller, iv. vi. 5, " As I shall doubt- 
less acquit myself'* ; Spenser's Faerie 
Queene, ii. xii. 45, " besprinkeled," to 
rhyme with " wed," etc Johnson sug- 
gested that " right " was lost at the end 
of the line, a loss due to the corruption 
of an original "light'* at the end of 
line 86 into the present "sun.** Mr. 
Craig supposes the following lines of 
Moore imitated i&rom this passage: — 
" Our first young love resembles | That 
short but brilliant ray | Which smiles 
and weeps and trembles | Through 
April's earliest day '* ( Works, " Ballads 
and Songs," ed. 1850, p. 292). 



22 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

ACT II 

SCENE I.— Mi/an. the Duke's Palace. 

Enter VALENTINE and Speed. 

Speed. Sir, your glove. 

Val, Not mine ; my gloves are on. 

Speed. Why, then, this may be yours, for this is but one. 

VaL Ha ! let me see : ay, give it me, it 's mine : 
Sweet ornament that decks a thing divine ! 
Ah, Silvia, Silvia ! 5 

Speed. Madam Silvia ! Madam Silvia ! 

Val. How now, sirrah ? 

Speed. She is not within hearing, sir. 

Val. Why, sir, who bade you call her ? 

Speed. Your worship, sir; or else I mistook. 10 

Val. Well, you '11 still be too forward. 

Speed. And yet I was last chidden for being too slow. 

Val. Go to, sir : tell me, do you know Madam Silvia ? 

Speed. She that your worship loves ? 

Val. Why, how know you that I am in love ? 1 5 

Speed. Marry, by these special marks : first, you have 
learn'd, like Sir Proteus, to wreathe your arms, 
like a male-content ; to relish a love-song, like 
a robin-redbreast ; to walk alone, like one that 
had the pestilence; to sigh, like a school-boy 20 
that had lost his A B C ; to weep, like a young 

Scene /.—Milan] Pope. Scene i, . . . Palace] Theobald. 

I, 2. on . . . one] The pun may show lord of folded arms, Liege of all . . . 

that the labialising pronunciation of the malcontents " (Craig), 

numeral (** won ") was not yet universal ; i8. male-contenf] the Latin " e " still 

"it does not appear to be older in retained, as in 'Ly\y's Sapko and Phao^ 

literature than about A.D. 1500" iii, i, 13, "belike you are a male 

(Skeat); while in the last decade of content** (composed 1582). Marston's 

the century it was often written **on." McUcontent was acted 1601. With this 

Prof. Herford aptly cites Z<wtf'j Za3^«r*j passage cf. the "marks" of love 

Lost^ IV. ii. 85, "Master Parson, quasi enumerated by Rosalind, As You Like 

pers-on. An if one should be pierced, //, in. ii. 391 sqq, 

which is the one ? " 2\, his A B C\ Halliwell prints in 

\*] , wreathe your arms] ioXA ^^vs\^ 2, facsimile a broadside Alpliibet of 

sign of melancholy. Lov^s Labour's rhymed moral maxims "Translated 

Lost, III. i. 195-1971 *' I^an Cupid ... out of Base-almaine into English, Anno 



SCI.] OF VERONA 23 

wench that had buried her grandam; to fast, 
like one that takes diet ; to watch, like one that 
fears robbing ; to speak puling, like a beggar at 
Hallowmas. You were wont, when you laugh'd, 25 
to crow like a cock ; when you walk'd, to walk 
like one of the lions ; when you fasted, it was 
presently after dinner; when you look'd sadly, 
it was for want of money: and now you are 
metamorphosed with a mistress, that, when I 30 
look on you, I can hardly think you my master. 

Val. Are all these things perceived in me ? 

Speed, They are all perceived without ye. 

Val. Without me ? they cannot. 

Speed. Without you ? nay, that 's certain, for, without 3 5 
you were so simple, none else would : but you 
are so without these follies, that these follies are 
within you, and shine through you like the 
water in an urinal, that not an eye that sees 
you but is a physician to comment on your 40 
malady. 

VaL But tell me, dost thou know my lady Silvia ? 

Speed. She that you gaze on so, as she sits at supper ? 

Val. Hast thou observed that? even she I mean. 

Speed. Why, sir, I know her not. 45 

Val. Dost thou know her by my gazing on her, and 
yet knowest her not ? 

22. Imricd] F i, lost Ff 2-4. 46. my\ omitted Ff 3, 4. 

1575." Mr. Craig compares "absey- Compare all this with Valentine's con- 
book," King John, I. i. 196. fidences to Proteus in scene iv. and 

24, 25. puling . . . Hallowmas] Launce in in. i. 264 sqq. 
whining. Toilet mentions a custom in 39. urinal] evidently a small glass, or 
Staffordshire of begging for *'soul- transparent tube, for testing urine. Cot- 
cakes" or other alms on All Saints' grave gives "FnVw/: anvrinal; also, a 
Day, the eve of All Souls', November 2. Jordan, or Chamberpot," evidently dis- 

27. one of the lions] in the Tower tinguishing the first sense of the word 
(Ritson), where their stately pacing from this latter (Craig). The New Syd- 
might be most conveniently observed. enham Society's Lexicon of Medicine 

28. presently] immediately ; cf. I. il (1899) has " Urinal, A vessel in which 
59, III. L 42, IV. iv. 45. urine is kept for convenience or inspec- 

36. none else would] " be so simple, " tion " ; ana Dekker's use of " urinalist " 
Johnson; I think, rather, ** perceive (Match me in London, ni,,f{}iot^ Cent. 
them," cf. line 38. His love-secret Diet.) for one who inlets urine 
would be unread, were he not too medically seems to establish a con- 
simple to disguise the symptoms, temporary medical sense for " urina." 



24 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Speed. Is she not hard-favour'd, sir ? 

VaL Not so fair, boy, as well-favour'd. 

Speed. Sir, I know that well enough. 50 

Vcd. What dost thou know ? 

Speed. That she is not so fair as, of you, well favour'd. 

Vol. I mean that her beauty is exquisite, but her favour 
infinite. 

Speed. That 's because the one is painted, and the other 5 5 
out of all count. 

Vol. How painted ? and how out of count ? 

Speed. Marry, sir, so painted, to make her fair, that 
no man counts of her beauty. 

Vol. How esteemest thou me? I account of her 60 
beauty. 

Speed. You never saw her since she was deform'd. 

Vol. How long hath she been deform'd ? 

Speed. Ever since you loved her. 

Vol. I have loved her. ever since I saw her; and still 65 
I see her beautiful. 

Speed. If you love her, you cannot see her. 

Val. Why? 

Speed. Because Love is blind. O, that you had mine 

eyes ; or your own eyes had the lights they were 70 
wont to have when you chid at Sir Proteus for 
going ungarter'd ! 

Val. What should I see then ? 

Speed. Your own present folly, and her passing de- 
formity: for he, being in love, could not see to 75 
garter his hose ; and you, being in love, cannot 
see to put on your hose, 

77. put on your hose] put on your shoes or beyond your nose Camb, conj. 

48. hard'favouf^d] harsh • featured, shape. Speed merely means that love 
ugly. Mr. Craig quotes As You Like falsifies the appearance of its object. 
//, III. iii. 42. 71. chid of] in five other places in 

49. Not so fair, etc.] her gracious Shakespeare, ^.^., Ronuo and Juliet, 
nature surpasses even her beauty ; so iii. ii. 95, *' O what a beast was I to 
explained by Valentine, lines 53, 54. chide at him " (Marshall). Used with- 

59. counts of her beauty] and there- out " at," line 12, above, 

fore no man seeks her "favour," the 72. ungarter^d] So As You Like It, 

other member of Speed's antithesis, iii. ii. 3^, "your hose should be un- 

line 55. gartered," as a sign of love. 

62. deform' d] changed from her true 77. put on your hose] in support of 



SCI.] OF VERONA 25 



\ 



Val. Belike, boy, then, you are in love ; for last morn- 
ing you could not see to wipe my shoes. 

Speed. True, sir; I was in love with my bed: I 
thank you, you swinged me for my love, which 
makes me the bolder to chide you for yours. 

Val. In conclusion, I stand affected to her. 

Speed. I would you were set, so your affection would 

cease. 85 

Val. Last night she enjoin'd me to write some lines 
to one she loves. 

Speed. And have you ? 

Val. I have. 

Speed. Are they not lamely writ ? 90 

Val. No, boy, but as well as I can do them. Peace ! 
here she comes. 

Speed. [Aside.] O excellent motion ! O exceeding 
puppet ! Now will he interpret to her. 

Enter Silvia. 

Val. Madam and mistress, a thousand good-morrows. 95 
Speed. [Aside.] O, give ye good even ! here 's a million 

of manners. 
Sil. Sir Valentine and servant, to you two thousand. 

93, 96, 99. [Aside] Capell. 94. Enter Silvia] Rowe, omitted Ff. 

''shoes" (which would lead up to line alluded to by Ben Jonson (Every Man 

79) the Camb. Edd. note the "shoe Out of his Humour, n. i.) and others, 

untied " as a mark of love in As You The instance quoted, however, by 

Like Jty III. ii. 352, and the misprint Steevens from Beaumont and Fletcher, 

"hose" for "shoes" in Greene's Rule a Wife^ etc.\\\.\, t%llixt%zn\A, 

Groatsworth of Wit (cf. ed. Dyce, p. of the proposed husband she intends to 

xxviii); but "hose" is thoroughly m manage], "if he be that motion that 

accord with the Lylian trick of repeti- thou speak'st of," shows that it also 

tion (cf. I. i. 139, 140, "mind"), nor meant "puppet," Probably both 

need we suppose Valentine's hose "motion" and "puppet" here are 

absent, but merely in some disorder, applied to Silvia m her fine dress, 

the points untied, etc. " Interpret," discourse, of the dialogue 

81. swinged] beat, as ill. i. 379. supplied by the manipulator of the 

84. set"^ seated, opposed to '•stand," puppets. Mr. Craig cites Nash's Pierce 

line 83, with notion of an end as of the Pennilessey 1 592 ( Works, ed. M 'Kerrow, 

sun set (Malone), though Halliwell says 1. 173, lines 10, 1 1), " the puling accent 

* * set dawn, in the sense oiput down. " of her voyce is like a £Eiined treble or ones 

93, 94. motion . . . pnppet . . . inter- voyce that interprets to the puppets." 
pref\ " motion " = puppet-play, as the 98. servant] payer of authorised 

" new motion of the city of Nineveh," attentions, not pledging the lady. 



26 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Speed. [Aside.] He should give her interest, and she 

gives it him. lOO 

Vol. As you enjoin'd me, I have writ your letter 

Unto the secret nameless friend of yours ; 

Which I was much unwilling to proceed in, 

But for my duty to your ladyship. 
St/. I thank you, gentle servant : 'tis very clerkly done. 105 
Va/, Now trust me, madam, it came hardly off; 

For, being ignorant to whom it goes, 

I writ at random, very doubtfully. 
Stl. Perchance you think too much of so much pains ? 
Vol. No, madam; so it stead you, I will write, no 

Please you command, a thousand times as much : 

And yet — 
Si/. A pretty period ! Well, I guess the sequel ; 

And yet I will not name it ; — and yet I care not ; — 

And yet take this again : — and yet I thank you ; 115 

Meaning henceforth to trouble you no more. 
Speed. [Aside.] And yet you will ; and yet another " yet," 
Va/. What means your ladyship ? do you not like it ? 
Si/. Yes, yes : the lines are very quaintly writ ; 

But since unwillingly, take them again. 120 

Nay, take them. 
Va/. Madam, they are for you. 

Si/. Ay, ay : you writ them, sir, at my request ; 

But I will none of them ; they are for you : 

I would have had them writ more movingly. 
Va/. Please you, I '11 write your ladyship another. 125 

Si/. And when it 's writ, for my sake read it over. 

And if it please you, so ; if not, why, so. 
Va/. If it please me, madam, what then ? 
Si/. Why, if it please you, take it for your labour : 

99. Speed] Sil. Ff 2, 3. 117. [Aside] Rowe. 121. for] writ for Anon. 
conj. 

105. clerkly\ scholarly. I2i. are for you\ "writ" would 

1 10. stetid^^ assist. mend the metre, and might easily have 

119. quaintly] cunningly, skilfully, dropped out; while in the next line 

Cf. III. i. 117, ** a ladder, quaintly made ** Ay, ay " seems to imply a repetition 

of cords," and Merchant of Venice^ III. of his words ; but I adhere to the prin- 

iv. 69, " tell quaint lies" ; the sense of ciple of leaving the Folio reading xm- 

oddity is not Elizabethan. disturbed where it yields sense. 



SCI.] OF VERONA 27 

And so, good morrow, servant. [Exif. 130 

Speed, O jest unseen, inscrutable, invisible. 

As a nose on a man's face, or a weathercock on a steeple ! 

My master sues to her ; and she hath taught her suitor, 

He being her pupil, to become her tutor. 

O excellent device ! was there ever heard a better, 135 

That my master, being scribe, to himself should write 
the letter? 
Vol. How now, sir? what are you reasoning with 

yourself? 
Speed, Nay, I was rhyming: 'tis you that have the 

reason. 140 

Vol, To do what ? 

Speed. To be a spokesman from Madam Silvia. 
Val. To whom ? 

Speed, To yourself: why, she wooes you by a figure. 
Val. What figure? 145 

Speed, By a letter, I should say. 
Val. Why, she hath not writ to me ? 
Speed, What need she, when she hath made you 

write to yourself? Why, do you not perceive 

the jest? 150 

VcU. No, believe me. 
Speed. No believing you, indeed, sir. But did you "" 

perceive her earnest ? 
Val. She gave me n'one, except an angry word. 
Speed. Why, she hath given you a letter. 155 

Val. That 's the letter I writ to her friend. 

1 31-136. O jest , , . letterl 'Va^low^ lyj, reasoningl discussing, talking 

irrep;ular doggerel of an older period, as of. 

in lines 1-2, 156-157 of this scene, and 139, 140. rhyming . . . reasiml Mr. 

I. i. 76-So, iio-iii. There is a good Craig illustrates this old opposition by 

deal of it in Lov^s Labour^ s Lost and Henry V, v. ii. 166-168, " these 

Comedy of Errors^ and some, though fellows of infinite tongue, that can 

less (02 lines), in Taming^ relics, per- rhyme themselves into kdies' favours, 

haps, in the two latter, of preceding they do always reason themselves out 

work. again." 

132. nost . . , face\ Halliwell aptlv 144. by ajigure"] play, device; ue. 

quotes Pettie's translation of Guazzo s indirectly. 

tivile Conversation^ 1586: "The 154. gave me none] punning on the 

simple soules not perceiving that their sense of "earnest" as somethmg paid 

transformation, or rather deformation, on account at the conclusion of a 

is no more seene than a nose in a man's bargain, 
face." 



28 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Speed. And that letter hath she deliver'd, and there 
an end. 

VaL I would it were no worse. 

Speed. I '11 warrant you, 'tis as well : 1 60 

For often have you writ to her, and she, in modesty, 
Or else for want of idle time, could not again reply ; 
Or fearing else some messenger, that might her mind 

discover. 
Herself hath taught her love himself to write unto 

her lover. 
All this I speak in print, for in print I found it. 165 
Why muse you, sir ? 'tis dinner-time. 

VaL I have dined. 

Speed. Ay, but hearken, sir; though the chameleon 
Love can feed on the air, I am one that am 
nourish'd by my victuals, and would fain have 170 
meat. O, be not like your mistress ; be moved, 
be moved. \Exeunt. 



SCENE II. — Verona. Julia's House. 

Enter Proteus and Julia. 

Pro. Have patience, gentle Julia. 
Jul. I must, where is no remedy, 

Verona] Pope. Julia's House] Theobald. 

1 61-164. For often . . . lover\ The is no Gentlewoman so curious as to 

V regular fourteener^ or old ballad metre have him [her lover] in print,** ue, 

. of "six and eight," to be distinguished feultless. Steevens compared Burton's 

from the irregular dancing doggerel Anatomy of Melancholy ^ ed. 1632, p. 

noted lines 1 31-136. Line 165, "in 539, "he must speake in print, walke 

print I found it," suggests that they in print, eat and drinke in print, and 

are borrowed. Mr. GoUancz says, that which is all in all, he must be mad 

" One cannot help thinking that in print.*' 

Shakespeare is quoting from some play 167. / have dined] Cf. Euphues^ I. 

of the Two Italian Gentlemen type"; 201, line 6, "they all sate downe, but 

and it is true that the extracts from that Euphues fed of one dish which euer 

piece printed by Halliwell are largely stoode before him, the beautie of 

written in this same regular fourteener, Lucilla." 

though they do not contain this passage. 168, 169. the chameleon Love^ etc] 

See Introduction, pp. xxvi, xxvii. Cf. Lyly's Endimion, ill. iv. 129, 

165. speah in print] speak with pre- " Love is a Camelion, which draweth 

dsion, by rule. Cf. Euphties, ii. 168, nothing into the mouth but ayre." 
line 33, " Concerning the body, there 



sc.li.] OF VERONA 29 

Pro. When possibly I can, I will return. 

Jul, If you turn not, you will return the sooner. 

Keep this remembrance for thy Julia's sake. 5 

[^Giving a ring. ' 
Pro. Why, then, we'll make exchange; here, take you 

this. 
Jul. And seal the bargain with a holy kiss. 
Pro. Here is my hand for my true constancy ; 

And when that hour o'erslips me in the day 

Wherein I sigh not, Julia, for thy sake, 10 ^ 

The next ensuing hour some foul mischance 

Torment me for my love's forgetfulness ! 

My father stays my coming ; answer not ; 

The tide is now : — nay, not thy tide of tears ; 

That tide will stay me longer than I should. 1 5 

Julia, farewell! \Exit Julia. * 

What, gone without a word ? 

Ay, so true love should do : it cannot speak ; 

For truth hath better deeds than words to grace it. 

Enter Panthino. 

Pan. Sir Proteus, you are stay'd for. 

Pro. Go ; I come, I come. 

Alas ! this parting strikes poor lovers dumb. 20 

\Exeunt. 

5. Giving a ring] Rowe. 16. Exit Julia] Rowe. 18. Enter Panthino] 
Rowe. 

4. turn not] change not, prove un- 156-161, a ceremony described in iv. 

faithful ; so Rann, and it suits the con- iii. 26 as " assurance," the regular 

text better than "depart not." term. 

7, 8. seal . . . Aofy kiss . . . Aand] 16. gone without a word] See note 

Though no witnesses are present, it on I. iii. 38. 

seems, as Douce suggested, that they 19. Sir . . . come] as two lines in 

are reproducing the forms of the F; but intended, I think, as one, 

betrothal - ceremony, the joining of forming a couplet with line 20 ; "for" 

hands and the formal kiss. So in and **Go" are extra-metrical — "for" 

Taming, II. i. 320, after the wooing- as often after the fourth or sixth syl- 

scene Baptista joins the hands of lable and before a pause, "Go" as 

Katharine and Petruchio, and the latter exclamatory. Cf. v. iv. 71, note, and 

exacts a kiss. Cf. the details of the Introduction, p. xiii, footnote, 
"contract" in Twelfth Nighty v. i. 



80 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 



SCENE III. — The Same. A Street. 

Enter Launce, leading a dog. 

Launce. Nay, 'twill be this hour ere I have done 
weeping : all the kind of the Launces have this 
very fault. I have received my proportion, like 
the prodigious son, and am going with Sir 
Proteus to the Imperial's court. I think Crab, 5 
«iy dog> be the sourest-natured dog that lives: 
my mother weeping, my father wailing, my sister 
crying, our maid howling, our cat wringing her 
hands, and all our house in a great perplexity, 
yet did not this cruel-hearted cur shed one tear : i o 
he is a stone, a very pebble stone, and has no 
more pity in him than a dog : a Jew would have 
wept to have seen our parting ; why, my grandam, 
having no eyes, look you, wept herself blind at 
my parting. Nay, I '11 show you the mahner of 15 
it. This shoe is my father : no, this left shoe is 
my father : no, no, this left shoe is my mother : 
nay, that cannot be so neither : yes, it is so, it is 
so, it hath the worser sole. This shoe, with the 
hole in it, is my mother, and this my father ; a 20 
vengeance on 't ! there 'tis. Now, sir, this staff is 
my sister, for, look you, she is as white as a lily, 
and as small as a wand : this hat is Nan, our 
maid : I am the dog : no, the dog is himself, and 
I am the dog, — oh ! the dog is me, and I am 2 5 
myself; ay, so, so. Now come I to my father; 
Father, your blessing : now should not the shoe 
speak a word for weeping : now should I kiss my 
father ; well, he weeps on. Now come I to my 

A Street] Theobald, leading a dog] with his dog Crab, Pope. 1 1. pebble\ 
pibbh Ff. 

3, 4. proportion . . . prodtgmis\ for would make up sport " (of the Moorish 

** portion " and ** prodigal." girl Zanche). 

5. the ImpericU^s] Launce's vulgar- 24 sqq. I am the dogi Absolutely no 

ism ; but cf. Webster's White Devils need to emend, with Hanmer, Launce's 

V, iii., "See, yon's the infernal that confusion in this passage. 



sc. III.] OF VERONA 31 

mother : O, that she could speak now, like a wood 30 
woman ! well, I kiss her : why, there 'tis ; here 's 
my mother's breath up and down. Now come I to 
my sister ; mark the moan she makes. Now the 
dog all this while sheds not a tear, nor speaks a 
word ; but see how I lay the dust with my tears. 3 5 

Enter Panthino. 

Pan, Launce, away, away, aboard ! thy master is 
shipp'd, and thou art to post after with oars. 
What's the matter? why weepest thou, man? 
Away, ass! you'll lose the tide, if you tarry 
any longer. 40 

Launce, It is no matter if the tied were lost; for it 
is the unkindest tied that ever any man tied. 

Pan. What 's the unkindest tide ? 

Launce. Why, he that 's tied here. Crab, my dog. 

Pan. Tut, man, I mean thou 'It lose the flood, and, 45 
in losing the flood, lose thy voyage, and, in 
losing thy voyage, lose thy master, and, in 
losing thy master, lose thy service, and, in 
losing thy service, — Why dost thou stop my 
mouth? 50 

Launce. For fear thou shouldst lose thy tongue. 

Pan. Where should I lose my tongue ? 

30, 31. a wood woman] Theobald, a would-woman Ff, anouldwotnan Pope. 
35. Enter Panthino] Rowe. 41, 42. tied . . . tied . . . tied] t/d . . . fyd 
. . . ty'd Steevens, tide . . . Tide ... tide Y 1, tide .. . Tide . . . tyde Yi 
2-4. 

30. wood] mad, distracted ; Theo- Epi. A monstrous lye ; for I was tide 

bald, while emending, suggested that two houres, and tarried for one to 

"would" might be Launce's mistake vnlose mee" ; and Boswell much earlier 

for "wood." Perhaps there is also a in Hey wood's Proverbs ^ 1546, whence 

pun on the material of which his shoes Lyly took it — " The tyde taryeth no 

are made. man, but here to scan ] Thou art tyed 

32. up and down] exactly ; as Much so that thou taryest every man." It is 

Ado^ II. i. 124, "Here's his dry hand found also in The T^o Italian Gentle- 

up and down," Ursula recognising men (entered Sta. Reg. November 12, 

Antonio in his mask (Halliwell). Mr. 1584), where Crackstone, led off in the 

Craig quotes Day's lie of (kils (IVorks, meshes of a net, misquotes "the par- 

Bullen, p. 98), "I am in her mind for verbe *no body tarries for the tide'" 

that up and down." (Introduction, p. xxv). 

39-41. tide . . . tied] Steevens noted 52-54. tongue . . . In thy tail!] Cf. 

the pun in Lyl/s Endimion, I v. ii. Taming^ ii. i. 2i5-22a 
9-11, "the tyde tarieth no man . . . 



32 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiu 

Launce. In thy tale. 

Pan. In thy tail ! 

Launce. Lose the tide, and the voyage, and the 55 
master, and the service, and the tied! Why, 
man, if the river were dry, I am able to fill it 
with my tears ; if the wind were down, I could 
drive the boat with my sighs. 

Pan. Come, come away, man; I was sent to call 60 
thee. 

Launce. Sir, call me what thou darest. 

Pan. Wilt thou go? 

Launce. Well, I will go. \Exeunt. 



SCENE \N.—:^Uan. The Duke's Palace. 

EnUr Silvia, Valentine, Thurio, and Speed. 

Sil. Servant! 

Val. Mistress? {They converse apart. 

Speed. Master, Sir Thurio frowns on you. 

Val. Ay, boy, it 's for love. 

Speed, Not of you. 5 

Val. Of my mistress, then. 

Speed. 'Twere good you knocked him. [Exit. 

Sil. Servant, you are sad. 

Val. Indeed, madam, I seem so. 

Thu. Seem you that you are not ? 10 

VaL Haply I do. 

Thu, So do counterfeits. 

Val. So do you. 

Thu. What seem I that I am not ? 

54. thy tail] Ff, my tail? Hanmer ; [Kicking him.] Anon. conj. 56. tUd] 
Singer, tide Ff. 

Scene iv. 

Milan] Pope. . . . Palace] Theobald, 2. They . . . apart] Capell. 7. 
Exit] Camb. 

57. the river] the Adige, Cf. i. i. 52, ** I have a humour to knock you 
53, 54 note. indifferently well." 

Scene IV, 
7. knoc^d hint] Cf. Henry V. II. i. 



sc.iv.] OF VERONA 33 

Vol. Wise. 15 

Thu. What instance of the contrary ? 

Vol. Your folly. 

Thu. And how quote you my folly ? 

Vol. I quote it in your jerkin. 

Thu. My jerkin is a doublet. 20 

Vol. Well, then, I '11 double your folly. 

Thu. How? 

Sil. What, angry, Sir Thurio ! do you change 

colour ? 
VcJ. Give him leave, madam; he is a kind of 25 

chameleon. 
Thu. That hath more mind to feed on your blood 

than live in your air. 
Vol. You have said, sir. 

Thu. Ay, sir, and done too, for this time. 30 

Vol. I know it well, sir; you always end ere you 

begin. 
Sil. A fine volley of words, gentlemen, and quickly 

shot off. 
Va/. 'Tis indeed, madam ; we thank the giver. 3 5 

Si/. Who is that, servant ? 
Vol. Yourself, sweet lady; for you gave the fire. 

Sir Thurio borrows his wit from your ladyship's 

looks, and spends what he borrows kindly in 

your company. 40 

18. ^uotei] observe, note, as Hamlet, Felismena says : "Don Felix had on a 
II. i. Ill, 112, "I am sorry that with paireofash colour hose . . . hisdublet 
better heed and judgment | I had not was of white saten, embrodered with 
quoted him" (Steevens). Originally knots of p;olde, and likewise an em- 
of numbering off into chapters, Lat. brodered ierkin of the same coloured 
gnotaret to say how many (Skeat) ; veluet ; and his short cape cloke was 
then, as here, of any marginal note or of blacke veluet," etc. 

gloss, influenced perhaps by the Fr. 21. 77/ double your folly"] a pun 

cSte, cf. " coting in the margant," repeated in Jonson's CynthicCs Revels, 

Euphues, II. 51, line 28. F spells III. iii., ** Asot, I gave him a doublet, 

"quoat" in lines 18, 19, but the pro- Amor, Double your benevolence, and 

nundation was "cote," as Malone give him the hose too." 

observed, giving us the pun in line 22. How?] to express surprise or 

19. annoyance, as Taming^ v. ii. 82. 

19, 20, jerkin . . . doublet] The 28. //z;^ j« ^wr a«r] " in " for " on," 
doublet was a loose upper garment which would have been proper to the 
worn over the shirt, the jerkin a long chameleon. 

jacket worn over, or instead of, the 39. kindly] of natural affection 
doaUet In Montemayor's tale, p. 290, (kind) or gratitude, as usual. 

3 



34 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Tku. Sir, if you spend word for word with me, I 
shall make your wit bankrupt. 

Vol. I know it well, sir ; you have an exchequer of 
words, and, I think, no other treasure to give 
your followers, for it appears, by their bare 45 
liveries, that they live by your bare words. 

SU. No more, gentlemen, no more : — here comes my 
father. 

Enter DuKE. 

Duke. Now, daughter Silvia, you are hard beset 

Sir Valentine, your father is in good health : 50 

What say you to^a letter from your friends 
Of much good news ? 

Vol. My lord, I will be thankful 

To any happy messenger from thence. 

Duke. Know ye Don Antonio, your countryman ? 

Vol. Ay, my good lord, I know the gentleman 5 5 

To be of worth, and worthy estimation, 
And not without desert so well reputed. 

Duke. Hath he not a son ? 

Val. Ay, my good lord ; a son that well deserves 

The honour and regard of such a father. 60 

Duke. You know him well ? 

VaL I know him as myself; for from our infancy 

We have conversed and spent our hours together : 
And though myself have been an idle truant. 
Omitting the sweet benefit of time 65 

' To clothe mine age with angel-like perfection. 
Yet hath Sir Proteus, for that 's his name, 
Made use and fair advantage of his days ; 
His years but young, but his experience old ; 
His head unmellow'd, but his judgment ripe ; 70 

And, in a word, for far behind his worth 

48. Enter Duke] omitted Ff ; . . . attended] Capell. 53. happy] omitted 
Ff2-4. 56. w<?rM] w^/M Collier MS. 61. >6w<w] Hanmer, >6iww FC 

53« happy messenger^ bearer of good 63. conversed'] kept company (Craig), 

news. ' 65. C>/;«?V/j«^] letting slip. 

54. Don Antonio] so "Don Al- 70. head unmellow'd] untinged with 

phonso," I. iii. 39. grey. 



sciv.] OF VERONA 35 

Comes all the praises that I now bestow, 

He is complete in feature and in mind 

With all good grace to grace a gentleman. 
Duke. Beshrew me, sir, but if he make this good, 7 5 

He is as worthy for an empress' love 

As meet to be an emperor's counsellor. 

Well, sir, this gentleman is come to me. 

With commendation from great potentates ; 

And here he means to spend his time awhile : 80 

I think 'tis no unwelcome ndws to you. 
VaL Should I have wish'd a thing, it had been he. 
Duke. Welcome him, then, according to his worth. 

Silvia, I speak to you, and you. Sir Thurio, 

For Valentine, I need not cite him to it: 85 

I will send him hither to you presently. \Exit. 

Val. This is the gentleman I told your ladyship 

Had come along with me, but that his mistress 

Did hold his eyes lock'd in her crystal looks. 
Sil. Belike that now she hath enfranchised them, 90 

Upon some other pawn for fealty. 
VaL Nay, sure, I think she holds them prisoners still. 
Sil. Nay, then, he should be blind ; and, being blind, 

How could he see his way to seek out you ? 
Val. Why, lady. Love hath twenty pair of eyes. 95 

Thu. They say that Love hath not an eye at all. 
Val. To see such lovers, Thurio, as yourself: 

Upon a homely object Love can wink. 
Sil. Have done, have done ; here comes the gentleman. 

Enter PROTEUS. 

Val. Welcome, dear Proteus ! Mistress, I beseech you, 100 
Confirm his welcome with some special favour. 

81. unwelcome] welcome Ff 2-4. 85. cite] Ff, ^ctte Rann. 86. Exit] 
Rowe. 99. Enter Proteus] omitted F i. 

72. CV?»»^j] old plural, as often. "'cite," interpreting as "excite" and 

f"^, feature] of general personal " incite " respectively, 

appearance, not of face merely ; the 86. presently] now. 

hunchback, -^iV^rfl?///. (I. i. 19), says 99. Enter Prot.] Collier, followed 

he is "Cheated of feature by dis- by Camb. Edd. , added " Exit Thurio," 

sembling nature " (quoted by Malone). because Ff assign line 116 to him. 
85. cite] Rann and Malone read 



36 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Sii. His worth is warrant for his welcome hither, 

If this be he you oft have wish'd to hear from. 
Vol. Mistress, it is : sweet lady, entertain him 

To be my fellow-servant to your ladyship. 105 

Si/. Too low a mistress for so high a servant. 
Pro. Not so, sweet lady : but too mean a servant 

To have a look of such a worthy mistress. 
Vol. Leave off discourse of disability : 

Sweet lady, entertain him for your servant. no 

Pro. My duty will I boast of; nothing else. 
Si/. And duty never yet did want his meed. 

Servant, you are welcome to a worthless mistress. 
Pro. I '11 die on him that says .so but yourself. 
Si/. That you are welcome ? 
Pro. That you are worthless. 115 

Enter Servant. 

Ser. Madam, my lord your father would speak with you. 
Si/. I wait upon his pleasure. [Exit Ser."] Come, Sir Thurio, 

Go with me. Once more, new servant, welcome : 

I '11 leave you to confer of home affairs ; 

When you have done, we look to hear from you. 1 20 
Pro. We '11 both attend upon your ladyship. 

[Exeunt Si/via and Thurio. 
Va/. Now tell me, how do all from whence you came ? 
Pro. Your friends are well, and have them much com- 
mended. 
Va/. And how do yours ? 

Pro. I left them all in health. 

Va/. How does your lady ? and how thrives your love ? 125 

108. aworthy\ Ff 2-4, a worthy a F I. 115. That'\ No, that Johnson. 
Enter Servant] Theobald; Enter Thurio Collier; omitted Ff. 116. Ser.] 

Theobald, Thur. Ff, 117. [Exit Ser.] Theobald. 121. Exeunt Silvia and 
Thurio] Rowe. 

10^, eniertain\tTigzge; King Lear, 116. Ser.] Theobald was clearly 

in. vi. 83, "You, sir, I entertain for right in correcting "Thur." of Ff ; in 

one of my hundred." line 117 Silvia evidently addresses 

114. die an] die in fight with, some one else before turning to Thurio. 

Marshall quotes Look About You 123. hofve them much commended] 

(Dodsley), vii, 442, "I '11 die upon the have sent their kindest messages; of. 

slanderer." "commendations," I. iii. 53. 



sciv.] OF VERONA v37 

Pro. My tales of love were wont to weary you ; 
I know you joy not in a love-discourse. 

VcU. Ay, Proteus, but that life is alter'd now : 
I have done penance for contemning Love/ 
Whose high imperious thoughts have punish'd me 130 
With bitter fasts, with penitential groans, 
With nightly tears, and daily heart-sore sighs ; 
For, in revenge of my contempt of love. 
Love hath chased sleep from my enthralled eyes, 
And made them watchers of mine own heart's 
sorrow. 135 

O gentle Proteus, Love 's a mighty lord, 
And hath so humbled me, as I confess 
There is no woe to his correction. 
Nor to his service no such joy on earth. 
Now, no discourse, except it be of love ; 140 

Now can I break my fast, dine, sup and sleep. 
Upon the very naked name of love. 

Pro. Enough ; I read your fortune in your eye. 
Was this the idol that you worship so ? 

Val. Even she; and is she not a heavenly saint? 145 

Pro. No ; but she is an earthly paragon. 

VcU. Call her divine. 

Pro. I will not flatter her. 

Vol. O, flatter me ; for love delights in praises. 

Pro. When I was sick, you gave me bitter pills ; 

And I must minister the like to you. 150 

Val. Then speak the truth by her ; if not divine, 

1 30* ^ig^ imperious thoughts] Cf. 11 1. vL 42, 43, "an angel ! or, if not, | 

Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the An earthly paragon." 
Country i I. i. 238, 239, " Empire and 149, 150. IVhen I was sick, etc.] 

more imperious Love alone | Rule and There is reminiscence here, and^ in 

admit no rivals '* ; aXso A Ici/ia, 1595, Valentine's preceding speech, lines 

** Lordshippe and Loue no partners may 128 sgg., of the scene in Euphues and 

endure." — Ital. **N^ amor, n^ signoria his England {Ly\y*s Works, li. 91-93), 

ruole compagnia." Johnson read where, on Eujjhues* recantation of his ' 

** Those" for "Whose. '^ invectives against love and acknow- 

138. no woe to] i.e. compared to, as ledgment of the Englishwomen's 

Beaumont and Fletcher, King and No charm, Philautus rounds on him for his 

King, IV. ii. 53, ** The wind is fix'd to former preaching, 
thee." 151-153. if not divine . . . princi- 

145, 146. heavenly . . . earthly /a/(/y,^/^.]admit she is at least celestial. 

/ardtfOM] Mr. Craig compares C>^/^/iiftf, Staunton quoted Scot's Disccvtrie of 



> 1 



38 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Yet let her be a principality, 

Sovereign to all the creatures on the earth. 

Pro. Except my mistress. 

Vol. Sweet, except not any ; 

Except thou wilt except against my love. 155 

Pro. Have I not reason to prefer mine own ? 

Vol. And I will help thee to prefer her too : 

She shall be dignified with this high honour, — 

To bear my lady's train, lest the base earth 

Should from her vesture chance to steal a kiss, 1 60 

And, of so great a favour growing proud, 

Disdain to root the summer-swelling flower. 

And make rough winter everlastingly. 

Pro. Why, Valentine, what braggardism is this ? 

Vol. Pardon me, Proteus: all I can is nothing 165 

To her, whose worth makes other worthies nothing ; 
She is alone. 

Pro. Then let her alone. 

Val. Not for the world : why, man, she is mine own ; 
And I as rich in having such a jewel 
As twenty seas, if all their sand were pearl, 1 70 

The water nectar, and the rocks pure gold. 
Forgive me, that I do not dream on thee. 
Because thou see'st me dote upon my love. 
My foolish rival, that her father likes 
Only for his possessions are so huge, 175 

164. braggardisnt] Bragadismt Ff. 166. makes\ make F I. 

Witchcrafts 1584, p. 500, "The first "summer-swelling shore" (translation 

he calleth Seraphim, the second of Lucan, viii. 826, **ripasqae sestate 

Cherubim, the third thrones, the fourth tumentes,'* 1614, p. 554), cited by 

dominations, the fifth virtues, the sixth Steevens, is spoken rather of the summer 

powers, tte seventh principalities, the swellingofthe Nile, though with allusion 

eighth archangels, the ninth and inferior also to fertility caused thereby. 

sort he calleth angels." Steevens had 167. is alotie] is unique, peerless. 

quoted Romans viii. 38, "nor angels, Cf. the MS. play ^ftfgf^^flrr (early Eliz.), 

nor principalities." Johnson compared i. ii., ** That's alone," to express 

the kindred use of "state " for a person emphatic approval. 

of high condition. 172. cb not dream on thee] seem 

155. Except, etc] i,e. to place any as careless in my welcome, or of your 

her equal is a detraction from her. Cf. feelings ; the hyperbolical " dream" is 

I. iii. 81, 83. merely to parallel "dote" in line 

162. summer-swelling] that burgeons 173. 

in summer Sir i'&thur Gorges* 175. ^r] because, as I v. iii. 24. 



sc. IV.] OF VERONA <39 

Is gone with her along ; and I must after, 
For love, thou know'st, is full of jealousy. 

Pro. But she loves you ? 

Vol. Ay, and we are betroth'd : nay, more, our marriage- 
hour. 
With all the cunning manner of our flight, 1 80 

Determined of; how I must climb her window; 
The ladder made of cords ; and all the means 
Plotted and 'greed on for my happiness. 
Good Proteus, go with me to my chamber. 
In these affairs to aid me with thy counsel, 185 

Pro. Go on before ; I shall inquire you forth : 
I must unto the road, to disembark 
Some necessaries that I needs must use; 
And then I '11 presently attend you. 

VaL Will you make haste ? 

Pro. I will. \Exit Val. 190 

Even as one heat another heat expels. 
Or as one nail by strengfth drives out another, 
' So the remembrance of my former love 
Is by a newer object quite forgotten.. 
Is it mine unstaid mind, or Valentine's praise, 195 
Her true perfection, or my false transgfression, 

19a Exit Val.] omitted Ff 2-4. 195. mine unstaid mind^ or VaUntin^s] 
Camb. Edd, suggestion ; mine^ or Valentine's F i ; mine then, or Valentineans 
Ff2-4. 

191,192. one heat . . . one nail] In eye, and for "Valentine's "as dissyllable 

Arthur Brooke's Ronuus and Juliet the^ compare I. IL 38, and perhaps 

(1562), which we must recognise among v. li. 34. Of other proposed emenoa- 

the sources of this play, occurs — tions, Hanmer's '*mine 6)^36, or 

*' And as out of a planke a nayle a Valentino's" seems most likely to 

nayle doth drive, have led to the error (Theobald, on 

So novel love out of the minde the Warburton's suggestion, had read 

ancient love doth rive " "eye," ue, the actual sight of her), 

— quoted by Malone. Cf. Coriolanus^ MaJone, after Blakeway, read '*her 

IV. vii. 54, "One fire drives out one mien, or Valentinus* " ; cf. i. iii. 67. 

fire; one nail one nail." I rather disbelieve in "Valentines" 

195. mine unstaid mind, or Valen- as possessive (quadrisyllable), though 

tints'] I agree with Warburton that the Prof. Herford says "the inflexion was 

reading of F i yields no sense. Proteus still often sounded in early Elizabethan 

has not praised her ; and would not drama," and quotes Comedy of Errors, 

talk of being influenced by his own iv. i. 98, "You sent me for a rope's 

g raise of her, if he had. The Cam- end as soon," QX, Midsummer-Nighfs 

ridge Editors support their emendation Dream, 11. i. 7, "Swifter than the 

by suggesting ^e resemblance of moon's sphere." 



and "mind" to the printer's 



4^ THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

That makes me reasonless to reason thus ? 

She is fair ; and so is Julia, that I love, — 

That I did love, for now my love is thaw'd ; 

Which, like a waxen image 'gainst a fire, 200 

Bears no impression of the thing it was. 

Methinks my zeal to Valentine is cold, 

And that I love him not as I was wont. 

O, but I love his lady too too much 1 

And that's the reason I love him so little. 205 

How shall I dote on her with more advice, 

That thus without advice begin to love her ! 
/'Tis but her picture I have yet beheld, 
' And that hath dazzled my reason's light : 

But when I look on her perfections, 210 

There is no reason but I shall be blind. 

If I can check my erring love, I will ; 

If not, to compass her I '11 use my skill. [Exit. 

209. dazzled] dazePdso Ff 2-4. 213. Exit] Ff 2-4, Exeunt F i. 

200. waxen image Against a fire\ at these times he [the devil] teacheth 

Staunton quotes the passage, on which to make pictures of waxe or claye, that 

Shakespeare founded later the Witches by the roasting thereof, the persons 

of Macoeth, from Holinshed*s Historie that they bear the name of may be con- 

of Scotland (ed. 1586, fol. 149), de- tinually melted, and dried away by 

scribing the witchcraft used against continual sicknesse." 

King DufFe— the soldiers " found one 206, 207, advice] consideration, 

of the witches rosting vpon a woodden 208. but her picture] external pre- 

broch an image of wax at the fier, sentment, outer show. Cf. Beaumont, 

resembling in each feature the king's Fletcher (and Massinger's ?) Scornful 

person. . . as the image did waste afore Lady, v. ii. no, "I was mad once, 

the fire, so did the lx>die of the king when I loved pictures ; | For what are 

breake foorth in sweat ... so that as shape and colours else but pictures ? " 

the wax euer melted so did the kings Steevens quotes Cymbeline, i. v, 1$, 

flesh : by the which meanes it should "All of her that is out of door most 

haue come to passe, that when the wax rich ! | If she be fiimish'd with a mind 

was once cleane consumed, the death so rare," etc. 

of the king should immediatlie follow." 20^, dazzled] trisyllable; cf. ** re- 
in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of sembleth," (note) i. iii. 84. Malone 
the Country y I v. iv. io8, v. ii., the quotes Drayton, "A diamond once 
heroine Zenocia is subjected to the same dazzling the eye." 
treatment by the witch and bawd Sul- 211. w reason but] no question but, 
pitia. " S. W." quoted King James' no doubt that. 
Dcemonologie 1597), "to some others 



scv] OF VERONA 41 



SCENE v.— The Same. A Street 

Enter SPEED and Launce severally. 

Speed. Lauce ! by mine honesty, welcome to Padua ! 

Launce. Forswear not thyself, sweet youth, for I am 
not welcome. I reckon this always — that a man 
is never undone till he be hanged; nor never 
welcome to a place till some certain shot be paid, 5 
and the hostess say " Welcome ! " 

Speed. Come on, you madcap, I '11 to the alehouse with 
you presently ; where, for one shot of five pence, 
thou shalt have five thousand welcomes. But, 
sirrah, how did thy master part with Madam 10 
Julia? 

Launce. Marry, after they closed in earnest, they 
parted very fairly in jest. 

Speed. But shall she marry him ? 

Launce. No. 15 

Speed. How, then ? shall he marry her ? 

Launce. No, neither. 

Speed. What, are they broken ? 

Launce. No, they are both as whole as a fish. 

Speed. Why, then, how stands the matter with them ? 20 

Launce. Marry, thus; when it stands well with him, 
it stands well with her. 

Speed. What an ass art thou ! I understand thee not. 

Launce. What a block art thou, that thou canst not ! 

My staff understands me. 2 5 

Scene vj\ Sccena Quarta Ff 2-4. A Street] Theobald, severally] meeting 
Capell, not in Ff. I. Padtui\ Ff, Milan Pope. 23-30.] spurious, Pope. 

I. Padua\ by mistake for Milan, and 12. closed] embraced. Cf. The Pha- 
so '* Verona" in iii. i. 8i, v. iv. 126, nix Nest, "A Counterlove," "Clos- 
where the metre clearly shows that ings, Cleopatra's adders at the breast." 
** Verona" was intended. ** These in- 19. whole as a fish"] Again in Beau- 
accuracies are interesting as showing mont and Fletcher, Women Pleased^ 
that Shakespeare had written the whole i. iii., of the fallen Soto (Craig), 
of the play before he had finally deter- 25. understands] auibble on sense of 
mined where the scene was to be laid " " props," " supports " ; Johnson quotes 
(Camb. Edd.). another instance from Milton's Paradise 

5. shot] assibilated form of " scot," Lost^ vi. [line 625]. 
payment, contribution. 



42 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

Spud. What thou sayest ? 

Launce. Ay, and what I do too : look thee, I '11 but 

lean, and my staff understands me. 
Speed. It stands under thee, indeed. 

Launce. Why, stand-under and under-stand is all one. 30 
Speed. But tell me true, will 't be a match ? 
Launce. Ask my dog: if he say ay, it will ; if he say, no, 

it will ; if he shake his tail and say nothing, it will. 
Speed. The conclusion is, then, that it will. 
Launce. Thou shalt never get such a secret from me 35 

but by a parable. 
Speed. Tis well that I get it so. But, Launce, how 

sayest thou, that my master is become a notable 

lover? 
Launce. I never knew him otherwise. 40 

Speed. Than how? 

Launce. A notable lubber, as thou reportest him to be. 
Speed. Why, thy whoreson ass, thou mistakest me. 
Launce. Why fool, I meant not thee; I meant thy master. 
Speed, I tell thee, my master is become a hot lover. 45 
Launce. Why, I tell thee, I care not though he burn 

himself in love. If thou wilt, go with me to the 

alehouse : if not, thou art an Hebrew, a Jew, and 

not worth the name of Christian. 
Speed. Why? 50 

Launce. Because thou hast not so much charity in thee 

as to go to the ale with a Christian. Wilt thou go ? 
Speed. At thy service. [Exeunt. 

38. that'] thai that F I. 41. Thani F 4, Then Ff 1-3. 47. wi7/,] 

Knight, wilt Ff. 48. alehouse:^ F i, Alehotise^ so, Ff 2-4. 

37, 38. how sayest thou, that] what those who have their dinner and drink 

have you to say to this, that, etc. in the field " have fatter bames in the 

52. the ale] rustic festival where ale harvest, than they which will either 
was brewed, sold, and drunk, e.g. sleape at noonetyme of the day, or els 
Leet-ale, Lamb-ale, Clerk-ale, Bride- make merye with theyr neighbours at 
ale. Church-ale (to raise funds for build- the ale." Yet the former sense best 
ing or repairing a church), Whitsun- suits the present context. Cf. Carew's 
ale, etc. Dyce thought the expression Survey of Convwall^ ed. 1769, p. 68 
might mean no more than " the ale- (of church-ales), '* Besides, the neigh- 
house " ; and the foUowihg passive, bour parishes at those times lovingly 



quoted by Drake {.Shakespeare and his visit one another, and this way frankely 
Times t i. 175) from Ascham*s Toxo- spend their money together." 
philtis, seems to support that sense: 



scvi.] OF VERONA 43 



SCENE VI. — The Same. The Dukis Palace. 

Enter PROTEUS. 

Pro. To leave my Julia, shall I be forsworn ; 
To love fair Silvia, shall I be forsworn ; 
To wrong my friend, I shall be much forsworn ; 
And even that power, which gave me first my oath, 
/ Provokes me to this threefold perjury. 5 

Love bade me swear, and Love bids me forswear. 

sweet-suggesting Love, if thou hast sinn'd. 
Teach me, thy tempted subject, to excuse it ! 

I At first I did adore a twinkling star, 

' But now I worship a celestial sun. 10 

Unheedful vows may heedfully be broken ; 
And he wants wit that wants resolved will 
To learn his wit to exchange the bad for better. 
Fie, fie, unreverend tongue ! to call her bad. 
Whose sovereignty so oft thou hast preferred 1 5 

With twenty thousand soul-confirming oaths. 

1 cannot leave to love, and yet I do ; 

But there I leave to love, where I should love. 

Julia I lose, and Valentine I lose : 

If I keep them, I needs must lose myself; 20 

If I lose them, thus find I by their loss 

For Valentine, myself, for Julia, Silvia. 

I to myself am dearer than a friend, 

For love is still most precious in itself; 

And Silvia — witness Heaven, that made her fair ! — 2 5 

Shows Julia but a swarthy Ethiope. 

The Duke's Palace] Capell. Enter Proteus] Enter Protheus solus Ff. 
I. 2. forsworn] forswome ? Ff. 7. thou hastl / AiW^ Warburton. 21. 
by'] F I, ^/Ff2-4. 

7. sweet-suggesting] (the hyphen is young master, whom I have brought 

in F I) prompting to sweet thoughts or up at Oxford, and [who] I thinke must 

occasions, taking "sweet" as adv. (cf. leame heere in Kent at Ashford," i.e, 

" true-devoted, II. vii. 9). Cf. in. L become a schoolmaster. 

34, "knowing that tender youth is 17. ^az>^] cease, as ill. i. 182. 

soon suggested." 26.] Shows Julia . . . Ethiope] So 

13. learn] teach, as V. iii. 4, " Have Lov^s Labour^ 5 Lost^ iv.iii. 118, "Thou 

leam'd me how to brook this." Cf. for whom great Jove would swear | Juno 

Lyly's Mother Bontbie^ 1 1. v. 48, "his but an Ethiope were" (Malone). 



44 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acth. 

I will foi^et that Julia is alive, 

Remembering that my love to her is dead ; 

And Valentine I '11 hold an enemy, 

Aiming at Silvia as a sweeter friend. . 30 

I cannot now prove constant to myself. 

Without some treachery use3 to Valentine. 

This night he meaneth with a corded ladder 

To climb celestial Silvia's chamber-window ; 

Myself in counsel, his competitor. 3 5 

Now presently I '11 give her father notice 

Of their disgfuising and pretended flight ; 

Who, all enraged, will banish Valentine ; 

For Thurio, he intends, shall wed his daughter ; 

But, Valentine being gone, I '11 quickly cross 40 

By some sly trick blunt Thurio's dull proceeding. 

Love, lend me wings to make my purpose swift, 

As thou hast lent me wit to plot this drift ! 

[Exit. 

SCENE Yll.— Verona. Julia's House. 

Enter Julia and Lucetta. 

Jul. Counsel, Lucetta ; gentle girl, assist me ; 
And, even in kind love, I do conjure thee, 
Who art the table wherein all my thoughts 
Are visibly character'd and engraved, 

35. counsel,'] Capell, counsaile Ff. 43. this] F i, his Ff 2-4. 

Scene vn, 
Verona] Pope. Julia's House] Theobald. 

35. competitor] partner, confederate, 41. blunt] stupid ; we retain the 

not rival (as Johnson interprets). Cf. figurative sense in " sharp." 

Antony and CleopcUra^ ii. vii. 76, 43. drift] scheme, intention, as ill. 

" These three world-sharers, these com- i. 18, and often, 
petitors," and Twelfth Nighty iv. ii. 12 

(of Sir Toby and Maria), "The com- S<:^^ V"- 

petitors enter" (Steevens and M. i. G?««j^/,Z«<:^//a] Contrast Portia's 

Mason). similar scene with Nerissa, Merchant of 

37. pretended] intended ; so " pre- Venice, ill. iv. 57 sqq, 

tence," ill. i. 47, and ** pretend mali- 2. conjure] ^sxxxaX. "c6njure." 

cious practices," 1 Henry VL iv. i. 16 ; 3. table] tablet, of slate or ivory, for 

Marlowe's Jew of Malta, in. iv. 6, memoranda. Hamlet, I. v. 107, " My 

" what pretendeth thb?" i.e. is the tables — meet it is I set it down." 

intention or meaning of this. 4. charactet^d] For the penultimate 



scvii.] OF VERONA 45 

To lesson me, and tell me some good mean, 5 

How, with my honour, I may undertake 
A journey to my loving Proteus. 

Luc, Alas, the way is wearisome and long ! 

Jul. A true-devoted pilgrim is not weary 

To measure kingdoms with his feeble steps; 10 

Much less shall she that hath Love's wings to fly. 
And when the flight is made to one so dear. 
Of such divine perfection, as Sir Proteus. 

Luc, Better forbear till Proteus make return. 

Jul. O, know'st thou not, his looks are my soul's food ? 15 
Pity the dearth that I have pined in, 
By longing for that food so long a time. 
Didst thou but know the inly touch of love. 
Thou wouldst as soon go kindle fire with snow 
As seek to quench the fire of love with words. 20 

Luc, I do not seek to quench your love's hot fire, 
But qualify the fire's extreme rage, 
Lest it should burn above the bounds of reason. 

Jul, The more thou damm'st it up, the more it burns. 

The current that with gentle murmur glides, 25 

Thou know'st, being stopp'd, impatiently doth rage ; 
But when his fair course is not hindered, 
He makes sweet music with the enamell'd stones, 
Giving a gentle kiss to every sedge 

18. inly^ Ff I, 2 ; inchly Ff 3, 4. 

accent Mr. Craig compares ;?-fl<f«^F/. ** An oven that is stopp'd, or river 

III. i. 300, ** Show me one scar stay'd, 

character d on thy skin." Bumeth more hotly, swelleth more 

18. inlvl as adj. in Dra3rton*s Poly- with rage." 

olbion (1612), vi. 88, " those inly heats 25-32. The current^ etc] These very 

which . . . itiey felt" (New £fi^. Diet,), p*etty lines were quoted by Professor 

In 3 Henry VI. I. iv. 171, "how Dowden as an example of Shakespeare's 

inly sorrow gripes his soul," quoted by verse at this time, end-stopped, with 

Schmidt, it may be adverb. few double-endings, and mclined to 

22. firis extreme] "fire's" a dis- develop an idea fully instead of giving 

syllable, as " fire" was in I. ii. 30. For it the most concise and pregnant ex- 

" Extreme," cf. Taming^ ii. i. 135, pression, as in later years. 

" Yet extreme gusts will blow out fire 29. every sedge] not as a collective 

and all." noun in Shakespeare — cf. Taming^ In- 

24. damm*st it up , . . bums] of duction, ii. 53, "all in sedges hid" — 

banking up a fire by heaping fuel upon though so in Marlowe's yjpw of Malta, 

it — we need suppose no mixture of iv. iv. 103, "Instead of sedge and 

metaphor. Cf. Fenus and Adonis, S3^, reeds, bear sugar-canes." Mr. Craig 

332 : tells me that he has seen lines 29, 30, 



46 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actii. 

He overtaketh in his pilgrimage ; 30 

And so by many winding nooks he strays, 

With willing sport, to the wild ocean. 

Then let me go, and hinder not my course : 

I '11 be as patient as a gentle stream. 

And make a pastime of each weary step, 35 

Till the last step have brought me to my love ; 

And there I '11 rest, as after much turmoil 

A blessed soul doth in Elysium. 
Luc, But in what habit will you go along ? 
Jul. Not like a woman ; for I would prevent 40 

The loose encounters of lascivious men : 

Gentle Lucetta, fit me with such weeds 

As may beseem some well-reputed page. 
Luc, Why, then, your ladyship must cut your hair. 
JuL No, girl ; I '11 knit it up in silken strings 45 

With twenty odd-conceited true-love knots. 

To be fantastic may become a youth 

Of greater time than I shall show to be. 
Luc, What fashion, madam, shall I make your breeches ? 
Jul, That fits as well as, "Tell me, good my lord, 50 

What compass will you wear your farthingale ? " 

Why even what fashion thou best likest, Lucetta. 
^ Luc. You must needs have them with a codpiece, madam. 
Jul, Out, out, Lucetta ! that will be ill-favour'd. 

32. wild'\ wide Dyce after Collier MS. 52. likesf] Rowe, likes Ff, 

reproduced verbatim in Richard John- ** Tyro's round breeches have a cliffe 

son's Seauen Champions of Christen- behind; 

<3l^xv^, "the first parte and second parte" And that same perking longitude 

of which are transferred by John Danter before, 

to Cuthbert Burby in the Sta. Reg., Which for a pin-case antique plow- 
September 6, 1596, the book (without men wore ; 
mention of Parts) having been entered and cites Montaigne, Essais, liv. I. ch. 
to Danter on the 20th April preceding, xxii., "De la Coustume," — "ce vain 
Hazlitt's Handbook quotes the title of modele et inutile d' im membre que 
The Second Part , , . Printed for Cuth- nous ne pouvons seulement honneste- 
bert Burbie^ 1697. I do not find the ment nommer, duquel toutesfois nous 
lines embodied in any of the poems faisons montre et parade en public." 
scattered through the book. 54. Out, out] Whitney cites York 
41. encoufiters'j&ddresses, accostings ; P/qys (p. 5, ed. Toulmin Smith), where 
cf. I. ii. 5, "gentlemen I That every "Owtel owte !" (=alas !) occurs twice 
day with parle encounter me." as a lament of devils in hell, and 
48. greater time] older years. " Owte ! on thee Lucifer " in reproba- 
53. codpiece] Steevens illustrates by tion. Either sense will suit our con- 
Tyrds Roaring Megge, 1598 : text. 



SC. VII.] 



OF VERONA 



47 



Liic. A round hose, madam, now 's not worth a pin, 5 5 

v^ Unless you have a codpiece to stick pins on. 

JuL Lucetta, as thou lovest me, let me have 

What thou think'st meet, and is most mannerly. 
But tell me, wench, how will the world repute me 
For undertaking so unstaid a journey ? 60 

I fear me it will make me scandalized. 

Luc, If you think so, then stay at home, and go not 

JuL Nay, that I will not. 

Luc. Then never dream on infamy, but go. 

If Proteus like your journey when you come, 65 

No matter who 's displeased when you are gone : 
I fear me he will scarce be pleased withal. 

JuL That is the least, Lucetta, of my fear : 
A thousand oaths, an ocean of his tears, 
And instances of infinite of love, 70 



(>T. withal^ withall Ff 2, 3 ; with all Ff I, 4. 
infinite Ff 2-4. 



70. of injfinite] F i, as 



55. A round hose] The New Eng, 
Diet, gives as instance of the singular 
with plural sense, The Paston Letters, 
No. 526, II. 233, ** I have not an hole 
hose for to doon." In the round hose, 
which is contrasted with "Venetians" 
by Nash in Have with you^ 1596, the 
close-fitting part of the hose 6r breeches 
extended farther up the leg, giving a 
greater bulge and roundness to the 
remaining portion. See Halliwell's 
large folio edition of Shakespeare. 

61. make nie scandalized] Schmidt 
quotes " scandalized and foully spoken 
of," 1 Henry IV, I. iii. 154; the sense 
is found as late as Sir Walter Scott. 
In Montemayor's tale FeUsmena, pin- 
ing for Don Felix, "determined to 
aduenture that, which I think neuer 
any woman imagined; which was to 
apparell myselfe m the habit of a man, 
and to hye me to the Court to see him 
in whose sight al my hope and content 
remained: which determination, I no 
sooner thought of, then I put in practise, 
loue blinding my eies and minde with 
an inconsiderate regarde of mine owne 
estate and condition. To the execution 
of which attempt I wanted no industrie ; 
for, being furnished with the helpe of 
one of my approoued friends, and 



treasouresse of my secrets (cf. lines 3, 
4), who bought me such apparell as I 
willed her, and a good horse for my 
journey, I went not onely out of my 
countrie, but out of my deere reputa- 
tion, which (I thinke) I shall neuer 
recouver againe ; and so trotted directly 
to the Court, passing by the way many 
accidents, which (if time would giue me 
leaue to tell them) would not make you 
laiigh a little to heare them. Twenty 
daies I was in going thither, at the ende 
of which, being come to the desired 
place, I took vp mine Inne in a streete 
less frequented with concurse of people," 
p. 2S4. 

70. of^ infinite] Malone reads "of 
the infinite," citing the parallel (prose) 
Much Ado, II. iii. 106, "it is past the 
infinite of thought." The New Eng, 
Diet, gives "an infinit of exemplis" 
(Winzet's Works, 1563), and "an in- 
finite of Books" (Glanvill's Lux Orient, 
Pref., 1682), but no instance of the 
adjective used substantively in the 
singular without an article before it. 
Possibly "infinite" is the compositor's 
spelling of "infinity," though Shake- 
speare has no other instance; "his 
infinite," Troilus and Cressida, li. ii. 
29, must be trisyllabic. HalliweU ex- 



48 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actih. 

Warrant me welcome to my Proteus. 
Luc. All these are servants to deceitful men. 
Jul. Base men, that use them to so base effect ! 

But truer stars did govern Proteus' birth : 
' His words are bonds, his oaths are oracles ; 7 5 

His love sincere, his thoughts immaculate ; 

His tears pure messengers sent from his heart ; 

His heart as far from fraud as heaven from earth. 
Luc. Pray heaven he prove so, when you come to him ! 
Jul. Now, as thou lovest me, do him not that wrong, 80 

To bear a hard opinion of his truth : 

Only deserve my love by loving him ; 

And presently go with me to my chamber, 

To take a note of what I stand in need of. 

To furnish me upon my longing journey. 85 

All that is mine I leave at thy dispose. 

My goods, my lands, my reputation ; 

Only, in lieu thereof, dispatch me hence. 

Come, answer not, but to it presently ! 

I am impatient of my tarriance. \Exeunt. 90 



ACT III 



SCENE I. — Milan. Ante-room in the Duke's Palace. 

Enter Duke, Thurio, and Proteus. 
Duke. Sir Thurio, give us leave, I pray, awhile ; 

We have some secrets to confer about. \Exit. Thu. 

Ante-room] Capell. 2. Exit Thu.] Rowe. 

plains "of infinite" as the equivalent of Whitney quotes an instance from 

"infinite" as an adjective qualifying Brome's Queens Exchange^ ii., and 

"instances" ; yet quotes Chaucer's Tennyson's Elaine (the latter of course 

Boetius, ed. Urry, p. 402, "And al- archaic). 

though thte life of it be stretched with ^ ^ ttt o 

infinite of tyme." ^^^ ^^^' ^'^ ^• 

85. longing] prompted by longing, I. give us leave"] polite form of 
as in Passionate Pilgrim^ 74, "Cytherea re<juesting a person*s absence, " leave " 
a longing tarriance for Adonis made." being leisure, opportunity. Cf. Taming, 

86. at thy dispose] in thy charge. in. 1. 57, "You may go walk and give 
90. tarriance] Cf. line 85, note, me leave awhile." 



i 



SCI.] OF VERONA 49 

Now, tell me, Proteus, what 's your will with me ? 

Pro, My gracious lord, that which I would discover 

Th^ law of friendship bids me to conceal ; 5 

But when I call to mind your gracious favours 

Done to me, undeserving as I am. 

My duty pricks me on to utter that 

Which else no worldly good should draw from me. 

Know, worthy prince, Sir Valentine, my friend, 10 

This night intends to steal away your daughter : 

Myself am one made privy to the plot. 

I know you have determined to bestow her 

On Thurio, whom your gentle daughter hates ; 

And should she thus be stol'n away from you, 1 5 

It would be much vexation to your age. 

Thus, for my duty's sake, I rattier chose 

To cross my friend in his intended drift 

Than, by concealing it, heap on your head 

A pack of sorrows, which would press you down, 20 

Being unprevented, to your timeless grave. 

Duke. Proteus, I thank thee for thine honest care ; 
Which to requite, command me while I live. 
This love of theirs myself have often seen. 
Haply when they have judged me fast asleep; 25 

And oftentimes have purposed to forbid 
Sir Valentine her company and my court : 
But, fearing lest my jealous aim might err. 
And so, unworthily disgrace the man, 
A rashness that I ever yet have shunn'd, 30 

I gave him gentle looks ; thereby to find 

21, unprevented] Ff i, 2 ; unprepared Ff 3, 4. 

4. discover"] xt\es\, 21. timeless] untimely, premature; 

i8, drift] scheme, as II. vi. 43, often of death in Shakespeare; cf. 

Afuck Ado, II. i. 350, and often. In Ronuo and Juliet y V. iii. 162, ** Poison, 

Sherwood's English-French Dict,^ "A I see, hath been his timeless end." 

Drift : Ce ^ quoy on tend, pretend, 28. aim] conjecture, guess ; so 

ou vise" (Craig). The New Eng. "aimed at," hne 45, and Julius 

Diet, quotes an instance from The Casar, I. ii. 163, "What you would 

Pilgrimage of Perfection (1526), ed. work me to I have some aim." Cf. 

1551, p. 168^, "Toimagyn . . . what Antony and Cleopatra^ V. u. 339, 

is the dryfte of y« Kynge in his parlya- " she levelled at our purposes." 
ment." 



50 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 

That which thyself hast now disclosed to me. 

And, that thou mayst perceive my fear of this, 

Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested, 

I nightly lodge her in an upper tower, 3 5 

The key whereof myself have ever kept ; 

And thence she cannot be conveyed away. 

Pro, Know, noble lord, they have devised a mean 
How he her chamber-window will ascend. 
And with a corded ladder fetch her down ; 40 

For which the youthful lover now is gone, 
And this way comes he with it presently ; 
Where, if it please you, you may intercept him. 
But, good my lord, do it so cunningly 
That my discovery be not aimed at ; 45 

For, love of you, not hate unto my friend. 
Hath made me publisher of this pretence. 

Duke. Upon mine honour, he shall never know 
That I had any light from thee of this. 

Pro. Adieu, my lord; Sir Valentine is coming. 50 

\Exit. 
Enter VALENTINE. 

Duke. Sir Valentine, whither away so fast ? 
Val. Please it your grace, there is a messenger 

That stays to bear my letters to my friends. 

And I am going to deliver them. 
Duke. Be they of much import ? 55 

Vol. The tenour of them doth but signify 

My health and happy being at your court. 

33. tha£\ omitted Ff 2-4. 50. Exit] Rowe, Enter Valentine] omitted 
F I. 56. fenour] tenure Ff. 

34. suggested] prompted, tempted, not "soon" as with us. Cf. i. ii. 59. 
seduced; as "sweet-suggesting love," The same change is seen in "by and 
II. vi. 7, and Henry VIII. I. i. 164, by." 

" suggested the king to this last costly 47. pretence\ design, purpose ; so 11. 

treaty." vi. 37, " their disguising and pretended 

38. mean] as iv. iv. 113. Schmidt flight," and Macbeth, 11. iii. 137, "the 

gives many instances, though the plural undivulged pretence . . . of treasonous 

form is more common. Cf. 11. vii. 5, malice.' Mr. Craig adds North's 

and Winter^ s Tale, iv. iv. 89, "Nature Plutarch, Coriolanus, ed. 1593, p. 256, 

is made better by no mean, But nature " Tullus . . . might no longer delay 

makes that mean." ^ his pretence and enterprise." 

42. presently^ now, as iv. iv. 45, 



SCI.] OF VERONA 51 

■^Duke. Nay then, no matter ; stay with me awhile ; 
I am to break with thee of some affairs 
That touch me near, wherein thou must be secret 60 
'Tis not unknown to thee that I have sought 
To match my friend Sir Thurio to my daughter. 
VaL I know it well, my lord ; and, sure, the match 

Were rich and honourable ; besides, the gentleman 
Is full of virtue, bounty, worth and qualities 65 

Beseeming such a wife as your fair daughter : 
Cannot your grace win her to fancy him ? 
Duke. No, trust me ; she is peevish, sullen, froward, 
Proud, disobedient, stubborn, lacking duty ; 
Neither regarding that she is my child, 70 

Nor fearing me as if I were her father : 
And, may I say to thee, this pride of hers, 
Upon advice, hath drawn my love from her ; 
■'And, where I thought the remnant of mine age 
i Should have been cherish'd by her child-like duty, 75 
I now am full resolved to take a wife. 
And turn her out to who will take her in : 
Then let her beauty be her wedding-dower ; 
For me and my possessions she esteems not. 
VaL What would your grace have me to do in this ? 80 

59. / am to break with thic ofi I In this line we have a further elision in 

have to broach to thee, am about to "honourable," or else an instance of a 

disclose to thee. The official "I am superfluous syllable at the end of the 

to," which survives, means rather "I third foot before a pause. Cf. v. iv. 

am instructed to." Cf. "Break with 71, note, 

your wives of your departure hence," 73. advice] reflection. Merchant of 



1 Henry IV, ill. i. 143; perhaps Venice^ I v. ii. 6, " upon more advice 

originally transitive, as Sir John Old- Hath sent you here this ring " ; and 

<:flj//^, I. i., "The very first thing I will cf. Henry V, m. vi. 168, "Bid thy 

break with him | Shall be about your master well advise himself." 
matter," and " break a word with you," 73. drawn my love, etc.] said partly. 

Comedy 0/ Errors, in, 1,7$; hut **hTeak no doubt, to test Valentine's affection 

with him " occurs above, I. iii. 44, for her, Shakespeare generally enjoying 

/u/ius Casar, 11. i. 150, and in Nash's this situation of^the older man sounding 

Terrors 0/ the Hi^'ht, I ^g^, *' goes im- the compass of young folk, e,^. the 

mediately and breaks with this mounte- Duke in Measure for MecLSure, 

bank, telling him," etc. (Craig, largely). Polixenes in Winter's Tale, Prospero in 

64. gentleman] Walker, Shakespeare Tempest, 
Versification, xxxiv., has noted the 74. where] whereas, as ni. ii. 64, 

frequent slurring of this word and 2xAl Henry VI, v. iii. 14, "Where I 

"gentlewoman" ; for the latter cf. iv. iv. was wont to feed you with my blood, | 

113, 185, where two syllables disappear, I '11 lop a member off and give it you." 

and ib, line 146, where only one is lost. Lines 74, 75, 78 remind us of Lear, i. i. 



52' 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acthi. 



Duke. There is a lady in Verona here 

Whom I affect ; but she is nice and coy, 

And nought esteems my aged eloquence : 

Now, therefore, would I have thee to my tutor, — 

For long agone I have forgot to court; 85 

Besides, the fashion of the time is changed, — 

How and which way I may bestow myself, 

To be regarded in her sun-bright eye. 

Vol, Win her with gifts, if she respect not words : 

Dumb jewels often in their silent kind 90 

More than quick words do move a woman's mind. 

81, in Verona] Ff ; Sir, in Milan Pope ; in Milano Dyce after Collier MS.; 
of Verona Halliwell. 

Leatider as the probable source (cf. 
above on I. i. 22), 

" *Tis wisdom to give much : a gift 
prevails 
When deep persuasive oratory 
fails"; 
and lines 119, 120 lend some support. 
But such allusion may be independent 
of Marlowe, and the sentiment is found 
in Lyl/s Sapho and /%«tf (1584), n. iv. 
105, "He hath wit ynough, that can 
piue ynough. Dumbe men are eloquent, 
if they be liberall. Believe me great 
gifts are little Gods," and also in a 
source familiar to all Elizabethans, 
Ovid's Art of Love : 

" Carmina laudantur : sed munera 
magna petuntur. 
Dummodo sit dives, barbarus 
ipse placet. 
Aurea nunc vere sunt ssecula: 
plurimus auro 
Venit honos: auro condliatur 
amor " (ii. 275-278) ; 
and Am. i. 8. 62, "res est ingeniosadare." 
90-105. Dumb . . . woman] The 
transition to rh3rme marks Shakespeare's 
sense of the appropriateness of the lyric 
vehicle to Petrarchist love-matter. So 
rhyme, and even the sonnet-form, is 
adopted in the first love-talk between 
Romeo and Juliet (l. v. 91-104), and 
by Beatrice in deciding to requite 
Benedick's affection {Much Ado, iii. 
i. 107-116) ; cf., too, the cloying sweet- 
ness of the single rhyme mamtained 
for ten lines by Titania about Bottom 
{Midsummer-Night* s Dream, III. i. 
151-160). 



81. in Verona here] So written, 
probably, by Shakespeare, and left by 
mistake unaltered after finally deciding 
the scene of this Act as Milan. See 
note on ii. v. i, "Padua" for Milan. 
"Verona'* occurs {^ain for Milan, v. 
iv. 126. Halli well's "of Verona" 
would be appropriate to the Duke's 
appeal to the Veronese Valentine, as 
Grant White also suggests. 

85. agone] poetical for "ago"; in 
prose Twelfth Night, v. 204. 

85, 86. forgot to court . . , fashion 
, , . changed] This old fear of the oldster 
derivesspecial point and naturalness from 
the recent influx of Renaissance fashions 
in literature and court-life. The preva- 
lent artificiality is abundantly illustrated 
in Ben Jonson's Cynthic^s Revels. Just 
so Lyly in his address to the Gentlemen 
Readers prefixed to Euphues and his 
England, says, " the olde courtier will 
haue his loue taste of Satume," and 
amplifies the needless apology in the 
tale itself {Works, ii. 57). Euphuism 
being a main ingredient of contemporary 
court - fashion, Valentine's following 
maxims are fitly compiled from 
Lyly. 

87. bestow myself] conduct myself. 
Rolfe quotes 2 Henry IV. ii. ii. 186, 
* * see Falstaff bestow himself to-night in 
his true colours." Also As You Like 
It, IV. iii. 88. 

88. sun-brigh^ Twice in Marlowe's 
1 Tamburlaine, il. iii. 22, v. i. (p. 79, 
Mermaid ed.). 

89-91. Win her with gifts, etc.] 
Malone cited Marlowe's Hero and 



SCI.] OF VERONA 53 

Duke, But she did scorn a present that I sent her. 

Val. A woman sometimes scorns what best contents her. 

Send her another ; never give her o'er ; 

For scorn at first makes after-love the more. 95 

If she do frown, 'tis not in hate of you, 

But rather to beget more love in you : 

If she do chide, 'tis not to have you gone ; 

For why, the fools are mad, if left alone. 

Take no repulse, whatever she doth say ; 100 

For " get you gone," she doth not mean " away ! " 

Flatter and praise, commend, extol their graces ; 

Though ne'er so black, say they have angels' faces. 

That man that hath a tongue, I say, is no man. 

If with his tongue he cannot win a woman. ' 105 
Duke. But she I mean is promised by her friends 

Unto a youthful gentleman of worth ; 

And kept severely 'from resort of men, 

That no man hath access by day to her. 
VcU, Why, then, I would resort to her by night. no 

Duke. Ay, but the doors be lock'd, and keys kept safe. 

That no man hath recourse to her by night. 
Val. What lets but one may enter at her window ? 
Duke. Her chamber is aloft, far from the ground. 

And built so shelving, that one cannot climb it 115 

93. A woman sometimes scorns y etc.'\ I would none cared for loue more then 

Cf, Sapho and FhaOy ii. iv. 92, "If she I, what meane I, but I woulde none 

seeme at the first cruell, be not dis- loued but I? Where we cry *away/ 

couraged. I tell thee a straung thing, doe we not presently say * go too ' : 

womenne striue, because they would and when men striue for kisses, we 

be ouercome." Mason would have read exclaime, ' let vs alone,' as though we 

"content her,'* and Steevens "sent, would fall to that our selues." 

Sir" in line 92; but Walker (CriL 102-105. Flatter . . . win a woman] 

Exam, i. 143) quoted a similar irregu- Sapho and PhaOy ii. iv. 60 sq^,^ 

larity in rhyme from Lear^ III. vi. "Flatter, I meane lie . . . Imagine 

no. III, " When false opinion, whose with thy selfe all are to bee won . . . 

wrong thoughts defile thee | In thy just It is vnpossible for the brittle mettal 

proof repeals and reconciles tiiee" of women to withstand the flattering 

(Qq.). attemptes of men ... Be prodigall in 

99. For why\ Lticrece, 1222, " For prayses . . . There is none so foule, 

why her face wore sorrow's livery." that thinketh not herselfe faire. In 

99-101. the fools are mad . . . doth commending thou canst loose no labor ; 

not mean " away "] closely from Sapho for of euery one thou shalt be beleeued." 

and Phao, I. iv. 43-47, "Wee are 109. That] so that, as lines 112, 

madde wenches, if men marke our 129. 

wordes [ue, obey them] ; for when I say, 113. lets] hinders. 



54 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actih. 

Without apparent hazard of his life. 
Vol. Why, then, a ladder, quaintly made of cords. 

To cast up, with a pair of anchoring hooks, 

Would serve to scale another Hero's tower. 

So boldLeander would adventure it 120 

Duke. Now, al thou art a gentleman of blood. 

Advise me where I may have such a ladder. 
Vol. When would you use it ? pray, sir, tell me that. 
Duke. This very night ; for Love is like a child, 

That longs for every thing that he can come by. 125 
Vol. By seven o'clock I *11 get you such a ladder. 
Duke, But, hark thee ; I will go to her alone : 

How shall I. best convey the ladder thither? 
Vol. It will be light, my lord, that you may bear it 

Under a cloak that is of any length. 130 

Duke, A cloak as long as thine will serve the turn ? 
Vol, Ay, my good lord. 
Duke. Then let me seek thy cloak : 

I *11 get me one of such another length. 
Vol, Why, any cloak will serve the turn, my lord. 
Duke. How shall I fashion me to wear a cloak ? 135 

I pray thee, let me feel thy cloak upon me. 

What letter is this same ? What *s here ? " To 
Silvia!" 

And here an engine fit for my proceeding. 

I '11 be so bold to break the seal for once. [Reads. 

139. [Reads.] Rowe. 

116. apparent"] manifest, not yet op- service after he has used it. Anxious 
posed to " real " as with us. only to get away, he answers the Duke's 

117. quaintly] cunningly, skilfully, questions, framed to lead up to the 
Cf. II. i. 119, note. discovery, rather at random. 

120. So] so be it that, provided that. 126. By seven 0* clock] meaning to be 
Taming^ I v. iii. i6, "I care not what, gone before then. 

so it be wholesome food." ForLeander, 129. that] so that, as lines 109, 112. 

cf. I. i. 22. 130. of any length] tolerably long, 

121. <2/^^/tWflr] of breeding, spirit, an not "of any measurement, short or 
epithet chosen with reference to the long." 

preceding line, but possibly also with a 131. serve the turn] i,e» the occa- 

touch of irony; cf. lines 157, 158, and sion, as "use me for your own turn," 

" that peasant Valentine," v. ii. 34. Measure for Measure^ iv. ii. 60. 

122. Advise] xiiiorm, 138. ^«^»^] instrument. Rolfe quotes 

123. When would you use it T] i.e, he Venus and Adonis ^ 367, "the engine 
thinks his own will be at the Duke*s of her thoughts," i.e. her tongue. 



SC. I.] 



OF VERONA 



55 



"My thoughts do harbour with my Silvia nightly; 1 40 

And slaves they are to me, that send them flying : 
O, could their master come and go as lightly, 

Himself would lodge where senseless they are lying ! 
My herald thoughts in thy pure bosom rest them ; 

While I, their king, that thither them importune, 145 

Do curse the grace that with such grace hath bless'd them, 

Because myself do want my servants' fortune : 
I curse myself, for they are sent by me, 
That they should harbour where their lord would be." 



What 's here ? 

"Silvia, this night I will enfranchise thee." 



ISO 



149. would'] Ff 2-4, should F i. 

140-149. My thoughts . . . would be] 
The lines must be supposed written for 
earlier delivery and never sent, or else 
as intended to be drawn up to her 
chamber with the ladder, the actual 
meeting and elopement being fixed for 
a later hour. So in Romeo and Juliet, 
III. ii. 35, the ladder precedes the lover. 
But it is already dusk ; see on line 190. 
The lines form a regular Shakespearean 
sonnet lacking the first quatrain, like 
the ten lines spoken by Orlando, As 
You Like Itf III. ii., and the ten spoken 
by Beatrice, Much Ado, 11 1. i. 107-116. 
Cf. for the sentiment, Sonnet 27, " For 
then {i.e, at night) my thoughts, from 
far where I abide, | Intend a zealous 
pilgrimage to thee." Delius comments 
on the close connection between this 
play and the Sonnets, Cf. Introduc- 
tion, pp. xxxi, xxxii. 

140. My thoughts'] Lines 143, 144 
show that he means his written thoughts, 
his letters or verses, though lines 141, 
142 would be more appropriate to 
thoughts unwritten. 

140. harbour] shelter, lodge, as line 
149, and Coniedy of Errors, ill. ii. 154, 
" I will not harbour in this town to- 
night." 

142. lightly] easily. Cf. "lest too 
light winning | Make the prize light," 
Tempest, I. ii. 451. 

143. senseless] insensible of the privi- 
lege. Cf. Romeo and Juliet, i. iv. 36, 
" let wantons light of heart | Tickle the 
senseless rushes with their heels." 

144. My herald . . . bosom rest them] 
So below, lines 248-250, "Thy letters 
. . . shall be delivered | Even in the milk- 
white bosom of thy love." Steevens 



quoted Hamlet, ii. ii. 113, "In her 
excellent white bosom, these"; and 
spoke of the pocket formerly worn by 
women in the firont of their stays be- 
tween the breasts, in which they carried 
not only love letters and tokens but 
even money and needlework materials, 
comparing Chaucer, Marchantes Tate, 
700, "This purs hath she in with her 
bosom hid"; while Malone added 
Surrey*s5iww/j, 1557, "My song . , . 
When she hath read . , • Between her 
brests she shall thee put, there shall 
she thee reserve." The practice would 
disappear with the ordinary wear of a 
low-necked dress. 

145. importune] Accent on penulti- 
mate, as I. iii. 13 and always in Shake- 
speare, with only possible exception of 
Othello, III. iv. 108, "And lo, the 
happiness ! go and importune him," 
and IV. L 116, "Do you hear Cassio? 
0th. Now he importunes him." With 
the present unusual sense of command 
(still with idea of reiteration) cf. Measure 

for Measure, I. i. 57, " As time and our 
concemings shall importune " (demand, 
necessitate). 

146. grace . , . ^or^] gracious temper 
. . . instance of gradousness or &vours, 
though the first may mean rather grace- 
ful person, one of the Graces. Often one 
doubts, in the ingenious word-play of 
this Petrarcan mode, whether to dis- 
tinguish senses, or to class under the 
habit of mere Lylian repetition, into 
which it certainly tends to pass. 

148, 149. / curse . . . would be] in 
cursing &at they should occupy the 
covet^ lodging, I am cursing myself 
who sent them there. 



66 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 



'Tis so ; and here 's the ladder for the purpose. 

Why, Phaethon, — for thou art Merops' son, — 

Wilt thou aspu-e to guide the heavenly car, 

And with thy darling folly burn the world ? 155 

Wilt thou reach stars, because they shine on thee ? 

Go, base intruder ! overweening slave ! 

Bestow thy fawning smiles on equal mates ; 

And think my patience, more than thy desert. 

Is privilege for thy departure hence : 1 60 

Th^nk me for this more than for all the favours. 

Which, all too much, I have bestow'd on thee. 

But if thou linger in my territories 



153. Merops*'^ Merops F I, 

153. Why^ Phaethon,— for thou art 
Merops* son, — ^] Shakespeare, as Mr. 
Craip says, probably read the story in 
GoliSng's Ovid {Met, iL 1-324), trans. 
1565. Phaethon was son of Phoebus and 
Qymene, whose proper husband was 
Merops ; but Prof. Herford is probably 
light in pronouncing Johnson's sugges- 
tion, that the Duke means to taunt 
Valentine with mean origin (Warburton 
had explained *' a bastard, l^e-bom "), 
needlessly abstruse — ^he means merely 
"for, acting thus, you must really be 
Phaethon." An allusion in The Trouble- 
sonie RaigfUf 1591 {Sh, Library , vol. i. 
Pt. II. 234), "as sometime Phaeton | 
Mistrusting silly Merop for his Sire," 
has been thought to have suggested 
Shakespeare's, out there is no doubt 
about ms study of Golding. 

156. Wilt thou reach stars, etc.] 
ColUer referred this to Apelles ruminat- 
ing on his love for Alexander's mistress 
in Lyly's Campaspe (1584), III. v. 37, 
" starres are to be looked at, not reached 
at"; and Rolfe's note here quotes 
Greene's borrowing in Pandesto, 1588 
(Fawnia of the Prince), " Stars are to 
be looked at with the eye, not reached 
at with the hand." 

160. Is privilege for] grants the 
privilege or exemption of— a construc- 
tion nowhere exactly repeated. Whitney 
quotes Comedy of Errors, V. i. 95, 
" And it shall privilege him from your 
hands," and Lucrece, 621, " to privilege 
dishonour " (give warrant for). 

163 sqq. But if thou linger, etc.] The 



banishment of Kent in Lear, i. i. 176- 
181 has been compared : 
"Five days we do allot thee, for 
provision 

if on the tenth day following 
Thy banish'd trunk be found in 

our dominions. 
The moment is thy death " ; 
perhaps that of Rosalind by Duke 
Frederick is nearer {As You Like It, 
I. iU. 37-41): 

"Mistress, dispatch you with your 
safest haste 
And get you from our court. 
Within these ten days if that thou 

be*st found 
So near our public court as twenty 

miles. 
Thou diest for it." 
So Rome and Juliet, iii. i. 190 : 

" let Romeo hence in haste 
Else, when he 's found, that hour 
is his last." 
Coriolanus, ill. iii. 101-104 : 
" Even from this instant banish him 
our city, 
In peril of precipitation 
From off tne rock Tarpeian, never 

more 
To enter our Rome gates." 
Bolingbroke and Norfolk are banished 
"upon pain of life," Richard II. I. iii. 
14O) 153. The formula must neces- 
sarily be more or less the same. 
Banishment has been pronounced on 
Posthumus before Cymbeline opens. 



SCI.] OF VERONA 57 

Longer than swiftest expedition 

Will give thee time to leave our loyal court, 165 

By heaven ! my wrath shall far exceed the love 

I ever bore my daughter or thyself. 

Be gone ! I will not hear thy vain excuse ; 

But, as thou lovest thy life, make speed from hence. 

[Exit. 
Val. And why not death rather than living torment ? 170 
To die is to be banished from myself; 
And Silvia is myself: banish'd from her, 
Is self from self: a deadly banishment! 
What light is light, if Silvia be not seen ? 
What joy is joy, if Silvia be not by? 175 

Unless it be to think that she is by, 
And feed upon the shadow of perfection. 
Except I be by Silvia in the night, 
There is no music in the nightingale ; 
Unless I look on Silvia in tfie day, 180 

There is no day for me to look upon : 
She is my essence ; and I leave to be. 
If I be not by her fair influence 
Foster'd, illumined, cherish'd, kept alive. 
I fly not death, to fly his deadly doom : 185 

169. Exit] omitted F i. 185. death, to fly his] Ff 1-3 (no comma F 4) ; 

death ; to fly is Singer ; deaths ^ofly this Dyce. 

I'josqq. And why not death, etc.] aster, IV. vii., 1602 (where, however, 

Marshall has noted the very strong the original must be Ovid), 
resemblance between the attitude and 177. shadow] image, idea, illusion, 

language of Valentine here, and that of Henley quoted " animum pictura pascit 

Romeo in a similar situation, Romeo inani,*' Virgil \/En. i. 468]. Cf. Son- 

and Juliet i ill. iii. 12-70. We may net 27, " my soul's imagmary sight | 

compare especially line 12, " Ha, Presents thy shadow to my sightless 

banishment ! be merciful, say * death,' " view." 

and line 29, '"Tis torture and not 182. Z^az/^] cease, as 11. vi. 17, andcf. 

mercy," both (as indeed the whole Euphues, 11. 194, **they that cannot 

passage except five lines) found in Q i maintaine this pride must leaue of 

(1597)* "^6 passage is obvioysly a necessitie, and they that be able will 

development of Valentine's present leaue when they see the vanitie." 
speech, and therefore later than it. 183. influence] light, as of star or 

But this speech has undeniable beauty, sun, with a glance at the astrological 

especially lines 174-184, where we are sense of blessing and protection. Cf. 

spared the tiresome word-play: its Milton's Z*-<4/^r^, 121, "ladies, whose 

lyrical feeling and tendency to fall into bright eyes | Rain influence." 
couplets should be noticed. Halliwell 185-187. I fly not death, to fly, etc.] 

quoted imitations from The Two Noble I don't escape death by flying from the 

Kinsftien, ii. ii., and Jonson's Poet- Duke's doom of death : for, if I remain, 



58 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 

Tarry I here, I but attend on death ; 
But, fly I hence, I fly away from life. 

Enter Proteus and Launce. 

Pro. Run, boy, run, run, and seek him out. 

Launce. Soho, soho ! 

Pro. What seest thou ? 190 

Launce. Him we go to find : there *s not a hair on 's 

head but 'tis a Valentine. 
Pro. Valentine? 
Val. No. 

Pro. Who then? his spirit? 195 

Val. Neither. 
Pro. What then ? 
Val. Nothing. 

Launce. Can nothing speak ? Master, shall I strike ? 
Pro. Who wouldst thou strike? 200 

Launce. Nothing. 
Pro. Villain, forbear. 

Launce. Why, sir, I '11 strike nothing : I pray you, — 
Pro, Sirrah, I say, forbear. Friend Valentine, a word. 
Val. My ears are stopt, and cannot hear good news, 205 

So much of bad already hath possess'd them. 
Pro. Then in dumb silence will I bury mine, 

For they are harsh, untuneable, and bad. 

187. Enter Pro. and L.] omitted F; Pope commenced a new scene. 189. 
Soho^ soho I ] So'haugh^ Sou hough — Ff. 

I am merely in danger of death ; but, if 191. hair'\ quibble on "hare," after 

I go, I quit life at once. Halliwell his ** Soho." 

quotes Dryden, " How many deaths 192. a Valentine] " Valentine " being 

are in that word depart." used for true-love, e,g, line 211, Launce 

189. SohOf soho/] **a cry in hare- means that every hair is true to him, 
hunting and hawking. * Sohowe, the indicates him for none else but Valen- 
hare is founder boema, lepus est in- tine. 

ventus' {Promptorium Panmlorum, 198. Nothing.] Mr, CT9i^y^t[\com- 

1440)," (Craig's Little Quarto Shake- pares the answer of Imogen m her grief, 

speare), HalUwell has an engraving of CymbeHne^ I v. ii. 368, ** What art 

a fourteenth century seal, with a hare thou ? Im, I am nothing : or if not, | 

in the centre and legend ** So-hov. So Nothing to be were better." 

hov." 200. Who] for "whom," as Corio- 

190. What seest thou?] appropriate lanus, 11. i. 8, "Who does the wolf 
to Launce's view-halloo, but also per- love?" (Rolfe). " To who " and " with 
haps indicating that the room is getting who " occur in Othello, I. ii. 52. 

dark. 



SCI.] OF VERONA 69 

Val. Is Silvia dead ? 

Pro. No, Valentine. 210 

Val. No Valentine, indeed, for sacred Silvia. 

Hath she forsworn me? 
Pro. No, Valentine. 
Val. No Valentine, if Silvia have forsworn me. 

What is your news ? 215 

Launce. Sir, there is a proclamation that you are vanished. 
Pro. That thou are banished — O, that 's the news ! — 

From hence, from Silvia, and from me thy friend. 
Val. O, I have fed upon this woe already. 

And now excess of it will make me surfeit. 220 

Doth Silvia know that I am banished ? 
Pro. Ay, ay ; and she hath offered to the doom — 

Which, unreversed, stands in effectual force — 

A sea of melting pearl, which some call tears : 

Those at her father's churlish feet she tendered ; 225 

With them, upon her knees, her humble self; 

Wringing her hands, whose whiteness so became them 

211. No Valentine] no true-love. Malone's instance from TVy^^^^ M]^^/, 

For "sacred Silvia," cf. Sonnet 115, I. i. 2 is best: 

"Time, whose million'd accidents | "Give me excess of it, that, surfeit- 
Tan sacred beauty." ing, 

214. No Valentinel t,e. no longer The appetite may sicken and so 

myself, beside myself. die. 

216. vanished] Launce's mistake 223. unreversed . . . force] if unre- 
here was possibly the source of Shake- versed, must needs take effect, 
speare's rather odd use of "vanisht 224-231. which some call tears ^ etc] 
from his lips " (for " issued ") in the Again the undramatic vein of artificial 
similar scene of Romeo's banishment, love -poetry. Contrast the equally 
Borneo and Juliet ^ III. iii. 10. poetiod, but more natural, description 

217. (9, thcU^s the news!] allotted by of Cordelia's grief by the Gentleman in 
some editors conjecturally to Valen- Lear, iv. iii. 16-32 : the nearest like- 
tine, ness is — 

218. From hence] Schmidt gives " those happy smilets 



many instances of " hence " alone, e.g. That pla/d on her ripe up seem'd 

above, I. i. 71, ii. vii. 88, but the not to know 

pleonasm is more common. Again, What guests were in her eyes ; 

Sonnet 81, line 3. which parted thence 

2.1^. fed upon this woe already] So As pearls from diamonds dropp'd." 

Romeo resents the repetition of the This description by Proteus of a scene 

word, Romeo and Juliet^ ill. iii. that can only have occurred during the 

53 » ** O, thou wilt speak again of eighteen lines of Valentine's soliloquy, 

hmiishment"; and 57, "Yet *ban- lines 170-187,13 a rather extreme in- 

ished.' " stance of an ideal treatment of time 

220. excess . . . surfeit] So Merchant for stage purposes ; cf. in. ii. 3 note. 

of Venice^ in. ii. 112, "scant this Marsh5l notes that Pope commenced a 

excess I For fear I surfeit"; but new scene at line 188. 



60 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [acthi. 

As if but now they waxed pale for woe : 

But neither bended knees, pure hands held up, 

Sad sighs, deep groans, nor silver-shedding tears, 230 

Could penetrate her uncompassionate sire ; 

But Valentine, if he be ta'en, must die. 

Besides, her intercession chafed him so, 

When she for thy repeal was suppliant. 

That to close prison he commanded her, 235 

With many bitter threats of biding there. 

VaL No more ; unless the next word that thou speak'st 
Have some malignant power upon my life : 
If so, I pray thee breathe it in mine ear. 
As ending anthem of my endless dolour. 240 

Pro. Cease to lament for that thou canst not help. 
And study help for that which thou lament'st. 
Time is the nurse and breeder of all good. 
Here if thou stay, thou canst not see thy love ; 
Besides, thy staying will abridge thy life. 245 

Hope is a lover's staff; walk hence with that. 
And manage it against despairing thoughts. 
Thy letters may be here, though thou art hence ; 
Which, being writ to me, shall be delivered 
Even in the milk-white bosom of thy love. 250 

The time now serves not to expostulate : 

228. Asif . , . waxed pale for woe] adopt it, nor has the suggestion been 

Cf. the conceit added in Q 2 of /Borneo followed. — The Lylian antithesis of 

and Juliet ^ III. iii. 38, 39, "(steal im- this and the next two lines should be 

mortal blessing from her lips) Who, noticed ; and, in the last, the Lylian 

even in pure and vestal modesty | Still neglect of sense for the sake of it — 

blush, as thinking their own kisses sin." Vjdentine is to "study help" for that 

Similar conceits abound in Venus and for which help is impossible, but line 

Adonis and Lucrece. 243 may be the excuse. 

234. thy repeal] recall. Fr. rappel 247. manage it agcdnst"] wield it 

from rappeler. Rolfe com'^ts Julius against, as a traveller might wield his 

Casary III. i. 51, "For the repealing of long quarter-staff against attack. Cf. 

my bemish'd brother," and below, v. Richard II, iii. ii. 118, "manage rusty 

iv. 140, "repeal thee home again." bills | Against thy seat." 

The application to a sentence or decree, 248. art hence] Schmidt collects many 

found in Shakespeare, Richard IL iii. instances of " hence " without a verb of 

iii. 40, "my banishment repeal'd," and motion, e.g. Sonnet 39, absence "makes 

now alone surviving, seems to be the one twain | By praising him here who 

later use. doth hence remain." 

240. ending anthem] i.e, requiem. 250. Even in the milk-white bosom, 

Singer thought we should " unquestion- etc] See line 144, note, 

ably" read "Amen," referring to 251. expostulate] discuss, argue; a 

"word," line 237; but he did not wider and probably later sense than 



SCI.] OF VERONA 61 

Come, I '11 convey thee through the city-gate ; 

And, ere I part with thee, confer at large 

Of all that may concern my love-affairs. 

As thou lovest Silvia, though not for thyself, 255 

Regard thy danger, and along with me ! 

Vol. I pray thee, Launce, an if thou seest my boy. 

Bid him make haste, and meet me at the North- 
gate. 

Pro. Go, sirrah, find him out. Come, Valentine. 

VaL O my dear Silvia! Hapless Valentine? 260 

[Exeunt VaL and Pro, 

Launce, I am but a fool, look you ; and yet I have 
the wit to think my master is a kind of a knave : 
but that 's all one, if he be but one knave. He 
lives not now that knows me to be in love ; yet 
I am in love ; but a team of horse shall not pluck 265 
that from me ; nor who 'tis I love ; and yet 'tis 
a woman ; but what woman, I will not tell my- 
self ; and yet 'tis a milkmaid ; yet 'tis not a maid, 
for she hath had gossips ; yet 'tis a maid, for she 

260. Exeunt . . .] omitted F 1 5 Exeunt Ff 2-4. 263. one knave] Ff, one 
kind of knave Hanmer on Warburton's suggestion. 

that of demand or complaint, which two"; and Donne, The Triple Fool^ 

Schmidt does not recogmse as Shake- " I am two fools, I know, | For loving 

spearean, though Othello y I v. i. 217, and for saying so." Steevens added 

" I '11 not expostulate with her, lest her U. Ful well's Like will to Like^ 1587, 

body and beauty unprovide my mind," ** Thus thou may'st be called a knave 

might bear it. The present sense in graine, | And where knaves be scant, 

appears, Hamlet ^ 11. ii. 86, " to expos- thou may'st go for twayne." Capell 

tulate what majesty should be." thought Launce hinted at Proteus' 

255. though . . . thyself] even though double treachery, to Valentine and 

reckless of your person. Julia. — Mr. Craig suggests that "one" 

263. that^s all one . . . one knave] being pronounced like "own," "all 

i.e, no matter, if his knavery be but one' may be "a poor quibble" on 

slight, or in one respect; so Johnson, "alone." For "one knave" Staunton 

substantially, excellently reinforced by proposed " one in love," leading up to 

Farmer, who showed " two knaves" to what follows. 

be a recognised term for excessive 2(i'^y2(i^, He lives not now ^ etc, ]1ckiVi- 

knavery, quoting Edwarde's Damon son's suggestion of an allusion to the 

and PithiaSy c, 1564 (Hazlitt's Dodsley^ penalty Valentine has paid for telling 

iv. 20), "such a crafty knave, | If you his love-secrets bridges a rather abrupt 

seek a whole region, hiis like you cannot transition ; Capell found a bridge in his 

lutve : . . . You lose money by him if suggestion in the last note, 

you sell him for one knave, for he 269. gossifs] sponsors for a child of 

serves for twain " ; Merchant of Venice^ hers (Schmidt), with quibble on the 

II. ix. 75, "With one fool's head I tattling women who attend confinements 

came to woo, | But I go away with (Steevens). I have always taken it as 



62 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 



is her master's maid, and serves for wages. She 270 
hath more qualities than a water - spaniel, — 
which is much in a bare Christian. [Pulling out 
a paper.] Here is the cate-log of her condition. 
" Imprimis : She can fetch and cany." Why, a 
horse can do no more: nay, a horse cannot fetch, 275 
but only carry; therefore is she better than a 
jade. " Item : She can milk " ; look you, a sweet 
virtue in a maid with clean hands. 



Enter Speed. 

Speed How now, Signior Launce ! what news with 

your mastership? 
I Launce. With my master's ship ? why, it is at sea. 
Speed. Well, your old vice still; mistake the word. 

272, 273. [Pulling . . . 
Enter Speed] omitted F i 



280 



] Rowe. 
281. 



273. condition] Conditions F 4. 278. 
mastet's skip] Theobald, MasUrship Ff. 



"friends," a euphemism or litotes for 
lovers, though no doubt a quibble on 
godparents (her own), and in Steevens* 
sense, is included. The Neiv Eng. 
Diet, |;ives Piers Plowman^ A.V. 152, 
as an mstance of the word applied to 
a man: **Ic haue good ale, gossib, 
quoth heo. Gloten, woltou asaye?" 

271. more qualities than a water' 
spaniel] Marshall refers to Ab. Flem- 
ing's translation (1576) of Dr. Caius' 
treatise on English Dogs (Arber's Eng, 
Garner^ iii. 244), where the water- 
spaniel is said to find hidden duck by 
the smell, and to recover from the water 
** such fowl as be stung to death by any 
venemous worm," and also spent ** bolts 
and arrows." There is some point in 
Marshall's suggestion that the " Spaniel 
gentle or Comforter " (pp. 247-249) is 
more probably meant: he is the 
Melitaeus, or Maltese lap-dog, spoken 
of by Harrison {^Description of Eng- 
land)^ and Lyly {EupAues, 11. 189), and 
the quality alleged by Dr. Caius, be- 
yond that of being " meet pla)rfellows 
for mincing mistresses to bear in their 
bosoms," that of relieving his mistress 
or master of a * * sickness of the stomach " 
by taking it himself, would be proper to 
a devoted wife. 

272. dare Christian] Steevens' notion 
of an additional opposition of "naked 



female " to hairy dog seems to me quite 
forced. Launce's fun, or blundering, is 
confined to the irapd, vpwrdoKiav of 
^artf=**mere." 

273. ccUe-log] New Eng. Diet, gives 
"cateloge" as a fifteenth century form 
of catalogue; but I think a mispro- 
nunciation is intended, with probably a 
pun on the girl's name (** Kate-log," a 
record or account of Kate), as in 
Taming^ li. i. 189, "dainties are all 
cates," and 270, "bring you from a 
wild Kate (cat)." 

273. condition] qualities. Rowe's 
adoption of F 4 "conditions" is need- 
less. Singer quoted " * Condition^ 
honest behaviour or demeanour in living, 
a custume or facion. Mos. Moris, /5zf<7» 
defaire,* Baret." Ci,Merchant of Venice^ 
I. ii. 143, " the condition of a samt and 
the complexion of a devil." The New 
Eng, Diet, quotes an instance of 161 1. 

277. jade] quibble on the sense " of 
easy virtue." 

282. your old vice , . . mistake the 
word] Other instances in Launce of 
this Lylian habit of conscious punning, 
applied to wrest another person's words 
from their proper sense, are "tied" 11. 
iii. 41, "call me" 62, "stands" v. 21, 
"understands" 25, "lubber" 43, 
"maid"iii.i. 270, "stock" 306, "name- 
less" 314-317. But with it Launce 



SC. I.] 



OF VERONA 



63 



What news, then, in your paper ? 
Launce. The blackest news that ever thou heardest. 
Speed. Why, man, how black? 285 

Launce. Why, as black as ink. 
Speed. Let me read them. 

Launce. Fie on thee, jolt-head ! thou canst not read. 
Speed. Thou liest ; I can. 
Launce. I will try thee. Tell me this; who begot 290 

thee? 
Speed. Marry, the son of my grandfather. 
Launce. O illiterate loiterer! it was the son of thy 

grandmother: this proves that thou canst not 

read. 295 

Speed. Come, fool, come ; try me in thy paper. 
Launce. There ; and Saint Nicholas be thy speed ! 



combines two instances of the uncon- 
scious malapropism which Shakespeare 
gives to Dull, Grumio (once — Taming^ 

I. ii. 7), Elbow, and above all Dog- 
berry, namely, "prodigious" ii. iii. 4, 
* * vanished " 1 1 1, i. 2 1 6. But Speed also 
has the punning habit, when Launce is 
not there— "horns" I. i. 79, ",baa" 
95, " laced mutton " 99, "stick" 104, 
"moved" ii. i. 171; and wrests the 
word like Launce — "pound" I. i. 107, 
"fold" no, "bear" 121, "open" 130, 
"one" II. i. 2, "forward . . . slow" 

II, 12, "perceived without ye" 33, 
"well.favour'd"52. 

288. joU-head^ so Petruchio to his 
servants, Taming^ I v. i. 169, where see 
note. The New Eng. Diet, quotes it 
first in 1533, " A mastyffe hath ... a 
greate iolte head," and, of stupidity, in 
1573, G. Harvey's Letter-book^ 126, 
"Take him for a ioultehedd and a 
senseless brute." Derivation quite un- 
certain. 

288. canst not read] So Capulet's 
ignorant servant in Romeo and Juliet y 
I. ii. 59, 60, doubts if Romeo {>ossesses 
that difficult art. Among agricultural 
labourers it was probably rare — Costard 
{Lovers Labour's Lost, iv. i.) mistakes 
the addresses of the letters entrusted to 
him. The training contemplated in 
books like Elyot's Gouemour^ Ascham's 
Scholemaster and Toxophilus, Hob/s 
Courtyer (from Castiglione), and Lyl/s 
Euphues was meant for the well-bom ; 



and education generally would be con- 
fined to the well-to-do or the inhabitants 
of the towns, and would not be in any 
sense universal. 

293. loiterer'] idler, truant. In iv. 
ivr 48, Proteus accuses Launce of " two 
days loitering." 

293, 294. son of thy grandmother] 
Steevens' remark that the mother alone 
can vouch the child's legitimacy forgets 
that Launce's correction, in that sense, 
would need to be brought down a 
generation lower: to suppose a mere 
captious and needless correction does 
better. 

297. Saint Nicholas] Rolfe shows, 
from Donee, that he was the patron 
saint of scholars, not because he was 
made a bishop while a boy (cf, Putten- 
\iSca^^Art of Poetrie, 1589 (p. 279, ed. 
Arber), quoted by Steevens), but be- 
cause in Wace's Life of him in Old 
French verse he is said to have dis- 
covered the murder of three scholars by 
their host on their way to school, and 
to have restored them to life. The 
statutes of Colet's school required the 
boys to attend St. Paul's on his festival ; 
and he was also the patron of the guild 
of the London parish clerks. In Geuls- 
hill's remark (i Henry IV. 11. i. 58) 
that the rich franklin is likely to meet 
with Saint Nicholas' clerks on his 
journey, the phrase must mean robbers, 
Nicholas, said Warburton, standing here 
for old Nick ; but Rolfe refers it to a 



64 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 



Speed. \Reads^ " Imprimis : She can milk." 

Launce, Ay, that she can. 

Speed. " Item : She brews good ale." 300 

Launce. And thereof comes the proverb : " Blessing of 

your heart, you brew good ale." 
Speed. " Item : She can sew." 
Launce. That *s as much as to say, Can she so ? 
Speed. " Item: She can knit" 305 

Launce. What need a man care for a stock with a 

wench, when she can knit him a stock ? 
Speed, " Item : She can wash and scour." 
Launce. A special virtue ; for then she need not be 

washed and scoured. 310 

Speed. " Item : She can spin." 
Launce. Then may I set the world on wheels, when 

she can spin for her living. 

298. [Reads.] Gipell ; Imprimis] Item Halliwell. 301. thereof] therefore F 4. 



time when needy scholars travelled 
mnch, and would take a purse as soon 
as beg an alms. Halliwell has further 
illustration of the Saint's connection 
with schoolboys, and also notes the 
pun in "speed," 

298. ^^ Imprimis: She can milk^^] 
Halliwell read ** Item^*^ to correspond 
with Launce*s reading at line 277. 
Malone says Shakespeare elsewhere 
varies words already read from a docu- 
ment; though I recall no instance, I 
should not correct, as the variation 
might be Speed's. — This catalogue, read 
by one page with comments by the 
other, is acUipted from the very similar 
scene in Lyl/s Midas (printed 1592), 
I. ii. 20-87, where the page Lido re- 
hearses, to his fellow Petulus* comment, 
the properties of Cselia, his mistress (in 
domestic service). In Lyly, however, 
they are rather physical than mental 
characteristics or points of skill. 

299. can] Halhwell notes a possible 
pun on milk-can. 

301,302. the proverb: ^^ Blessing . . . 
ale "] alluded to in Jonson's Masque of 
Augurs : 

"Our ale 'so' the best. 
And each good guest 
Prays for their souls that brew it." 
(Staunton.) 



306, 307. a stock with a wench] a 
dowry ; generally of any capital sum, 
but perhaps as here in Euphues' letter 
to Philautus on his marriage (Lyly's 
Works ^ II. 226, line 27), "Breake 
nothing of thy stocke," where his wife's 
" great dowry" has been before alluded 
to. 

307. a stock] stocking; Steevens 
Quotes T\L*elfth Night, i. iii. 144, "a 
name-colour d stock." 

312, 313. may I set the world on 
wheels, when she, etc.] i.e, then may I 
have an easy time of it, seeing that she 
can do the earning. I explain " to set 
the world on wheels " as to make life 
run easily, rather than (with Herford 
and Craig) to let it slide, be careless of 
it, — though the effect is the same. 
Tliere is perhaps also a merely verbal 
glance at the world as the spinning- 
wheel. The same sense of relaxation, 
with the added sense of giddiness, 
attaches to the passage quoted by Rolfe 
from Antony and Cleopatra^ ii. vii. 
96-98: 
^^Eno. 'A bears the third part of the 
world, man, seest not? 
Men, The third part, then, is drunk : 
would It were all 
That it might go on wheels." 
The details Halliwell gives about a 



SCI.] OF VERONA 65 

Speed. " Item : She hath many nameless virtues." 

Launce, That's as much as to say, bastard virtues; 315 
that, indeed, know not their fathers, and therefore 
have no names. 

Speed, " Here follow her vices." 

Launce. Close at the heels of her virtues. 

Speed. "Item: She is not to be kiss'd fasting, in 320 
respect of her breath." 

Launce. Well, that fault may be mended with a break- 
fast. Read on. 

Speed. " Item : She hath a sweet mouth." 

Launce. That makes amends for her sour breath. 325 

Speed. " Item : She doth talk in her sleep." 

Launce. It 's no matter for that, so she sleep not in her 
talk. 

Speed. " Item : She is slow in words." 

Launce. O villain, that set this down among her vices ! 330 
To be slow in words is a woman's only virtue : 
I pray thee, out with 't, and place it for her chief 
virtue. 

Speed. " Item : She is proud." 

320. ki5^d\ Rowe, omitted Ff. 330. villain\ mlUmie Ff 2, 3 ; Mw] 
omitted Ff 2-4. 

pamphlet (1623) by Taylor, the Water- the fond appetites, that Venus sayde hir 

poet, The World runnes on IVheeleSy Adonis to naue, who seing him to take 

clearly establish the sense of self- chiefest delight in coastle cates, smyling 

indulgence. sayd this. I am glad that my Adonis 

314. nameless] more than can be hath a sweete tooth in his head, and 

named, or (as Schmidt) inexpressible, who knoweth not what followeth?" — 

He compares Richard II. il. ii. 40 this well-known quotation, "Csetera 

(the Queen), "But what it is, that is quis nesdt?" from Ovid, Am, i, 5. 25, 

not yet known : what | I cannot name ; proving the wanton sense. Launce s 

'tis nameless woe, I wot." reply may include this, or may take 

320. not to be kissed fasting] when it merely as pretty, or kissable, 

the stomach of the kisser would be mouth. 

queasy. Grant White thought Rowe's 327* 328. sleep , , , in her talk] talk 

addition of "kiss*d" ne«iless, but stupidly or at random. Collier MS. 

Dyce quoted Webster's Duchess of "slip." 

Malfi, II. i. (Bosola to the Old Lady), 329-333- slow in words . . . chief 

" I would sooner eat a dead pigeon virtue] Gratiano, Merchant of Venice^ 

taken from the soles of the feet of one i. i. 112, pronounces silence " only com- 

sick of the plague, than kiss one of you mendable In ... a maid not vendible." 

fasting." Leary v. iii. 274, praises the voice 

324. a sweet mouth] obviously the "Gentle and low, an excellent thing 

same as " a sweet tooth," which bore a in woman." An ancient expression of 

derivative wanton sense, as in EuphueSy Launce's view will be found in Xeno- 

II. 83, lines 9-12, " a fine taste noteth phon's CEconomicus^ c. vii. 5. 



66 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 

Launce. Out with that too; it was Eve's legacy, and 335 

cannot be ta*en from her. 
Speed. " Item : She hath no teeth." 
Launce. I care not for that neither, because I love 

crusts. 
Speed. " Item : She is curst" 340 

Launce. Well, the best is, she hath no teeth to bite. 
Speed. " Item : She will often praise her liquor." 
Launce. If her liquor be good, she shall : if she will 

not, I will ; for good things should be praised. 
Speed. " Item : She is too liberal" 345 

Launce. Of her tongue she cannot, for that's writ 

down she is slow of; of her purse she shall 

not, for that I'll keep shut: now, of another 

thing she may, and that cannot I help. Well, 

proceed. 350 

Speed. " Item : She hath more hair than wit, and more 

faults than hairs, and more wealth than faults." 
Launce. Stop there ; I 'II have her : she was mine, and 

not mine, twice or thrice in that last article. 

Rehearse that once more. 355 

354. Atf/] omitted Ff 2-4. 

342. often praise her liquor'] as Craig, 351. more hair than wt{\ The proverb 
for <* appraise " in sense of sipping or possibly arose from bushy hair produc- 



testing; and more doubtfully in TW^A mg the false impression of a large 

Night, I. V. 233, Olivia, after cata- cranium, or from an association of bald- 

loguing her features, says, " Were ness with age and superior wisdom ; 

you sent hither to praise me ? " where but the form quoted by Mr. Craig from 

Malone read "'praise." Mr. Craig Tohn Heywooid's/Vw^^j, 1546, "long 

compares Dunbar's Richi Airly on Ask hair and short wit," suggests rather 

Wedinsday, "All wine to test she the reproach of a foolish duidyism. 

would disdain | But Mavasy. " Steevens quotes Ray's Collection, ' ' Bush 

345. liberal] free, bold, wanton, as natural, more hair than wit," and 

Hamlet, I v. vii. 172, "long purples | 'DtVke.x's Satiromastix x 

That liberal shepherds give a grosser " Hair! 'tis the basest stubble; in 

name." scorn of it 

347-349. of her purse . . . cannot I This proverb sprung — He has more 

help] In Euphues letter to the new- hair than wit." 

married Philautus, 1 1. 225, line 10, The form, and perhaps the sense, of 

" For thy great dowry that ought to be this antithetic string is suggested by 

in thine own handes" ; p. 226, line 10, phrases in Euphues, e,g. i. 184, line 9, 

" Fly . . . lelousie ... all mistrust is "of more wit then wealth, and yet of 

either needelesse or bootlesse." The more wealth then wisdome"; 11. 18, 

sources of Euphues' advice were Plut- line 10, " Thou hast caryed to thy 

9X<Ai*sConjugcUiaPracepta2Ji<dLEdm\xxi<dL graue more graye haires than yeares: 

Tylne/s Flower of Friendship, a " dis- and yet more yeares, then vertues." 
course of duties in Manage," 1568. 



SCI.] OF VERONA 67 

Speed. " Item : She hath more hair than wit," — 
Launce. More hair than wit ? It may be ; I '11 prove 

it. The cover of the salt hides the salt, and 

therefore it is more than the salt ; the hair that 

covers the wit is more than the wit, for the 360 

greater hides the less. What 's next ? 
Speed. " And more faults than hairs," — 
Launce. That 's monstrous : O, that that were out ! 
Speed. " And more wealth than faults." 
Launce. Why, that word makes the faults gracious. 365 

Well, I'll have her: and if it be a match, as 

nothing is impossible, — 
Speed. What then ? 
Launce. Why, then will I tell thee — that thy master 

stays for thee at the North-gate. 370 

Speed. For me ? 
Launce. For thee ? ay, who art thou ? he hath stayed 

for a better man than thee. 
Speed. And must I go to him ? 
Launce. Thou must run to him, for thou hast stayed 375 

so long, that going will scarce serve the turn. 
Speed. Why didst not tell me sooner? pox of your 

love-letters ! \Exit. 

Launce. Now will he be swinged for reading my 

357. be; rir\ Theobald, he lie Ff. 378. Exit] Capell. 

358. coverofthe salflXahXt-saXthtrng foure met, which argued we were no 
anciently held in a single large '-salt- mountaines," I quoted the last line of 
cellar with a cover, which served as a a poem in Davison's Poet, Rapsody^ 
dividing-line between gentle and simple, 1602 (ed. BuUen, i. 39), "Though 

365. gracums] full of grace (religious), mountaines meet not, Louers may." 
rather than graceful or pleasing to the 372, 373. stayedfor a better man, etc J\ 
eye ; but Malone quotes Merry Wives, The humour lies in Launce's having no 
III. iv. 33 : legitimate score here, to stay for a 

" O, what a world of vile ill-favour'd person being a mark of condescension 

faults not of contempt. 
Looks handsome in three hundred 375, 376. stayed . . . going\ habitu- 

pounds a year." ally opposed of rest and movement ; as 

366, 367. if it be a match, as nothing in Vaughan*s fine poem The World; 

is impossible"] I think there is an allusion " The darksome statesman hung with 

to the proverb in Ra/s Collection, weights and woe 

" Friends may meet, but mountains Like a thick midnight fog moved 

never greet," quoted 1^ Steevens on there so slow 

As You Like It, in. ii. ife. On Lyl/s He did nor stay nor go." 

Mother Bombie, v. iii. 129, " wee 379. swinged'] beaten, as 11. i. 81. 



68 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actih. 

letter, — an unmannerly slave, that will thrust 380 
himself into secrets ! I '11 after, to rejoice in the 
boy's correction. [Exit. 



SCENE II. — The Same. The Duk^s Palace. 

Enter DUKE and Thurio. 

Duke. Sir Thurio, fear not but that she will love you. 
Now Valentine is banish'd from her sight 

Thu. Since his exile she hath despised me most, 
Forsworn my company, and rail'd at me, 
That I am desperate of obtaining her. 5 

Duke. This weak impress of love is as a figure 
Trenched in ice, which with an hour's heat 
Dissolves to water, and doth lose his form. 
A little time will melt her frozen thoughts, 
And worthless Valentine shall be forgot. 10 

Enter PROTEUS. 

How now, Sir Proteus ! Is your countryman. 

According to our proclamation, gone ? 
Pro. Gone, my good lord. 
Duke. My daughter takes his going grievously. 

382. Exit] Capell ; Exeunt Ff. 

Scene 11. 
. . . Palace] CapelL lo. Enter Pro.] Rowe. 14. grievously.] ^y^ienomlyF 
F I ; heamly? Ft 2, 3 ; heavily. F 4. 

3. exile] accent on second syllable, the impression love makes in general, 

as V. iv. 152, As You Like It, 11. though with specaal rejference to her 

i. I, Richard 11. i. iii. 151 ; but in passion for Valentine. 

Coriolanus four times on the penulti- 7. Trenched] cut; Fr. trancher. 

mate. Romeo and Juliet, in. iii. 13, 20, Rolfe quotes Venus and Adonis, 1052, 

show it was indifferent. — The interval "the wide wound that the boar had 

since the " exile," required by Thurio's trench'd | In his soft flank." 

speech, is contradicted by a comparison 7. hour^s] dissyllable, 

of line 13 (below) with sc. i. 252. See 8. his] The earliest instance of the 

note on in. i. 224-230. possessive form "its" quoted in New 

5. That] so that, as in. i. 109, 112. Eng. Diet, is from Florio, 1598. 

o. jfw^^xj] accent on second syllable; 9. melt her frozen thoughts] while 

on first in only other instance, Richard they retained Valentine's image, tiiey 

//. III. i. 25, " Razed out my imprese, were frozen towards Thurio — the meta- 

leaving me no sign," though on second phor is slightly inconsistent, 

in several cases with sense of "levy." 14. griezfously]gjAQvmAy, though the 

— " This weak impress of love " means only other instance dted by Schmidt, 



sen.] OF VERONA 69 

Pro. A little time, my lord, will kill that grief. 1 5 

Duie. So I believe ; but Thurio thinks not so. 
Proteus, the good conceit I hold of thee — 
For thou hast shown some sign of good desert — 
Makes me the better to confer with thee. 

Pro. Longer than I prove loyal to your grace 20 

Let me not live to look upon your grace. 

Duie. Thou know'st how willingly I would effect 

The match between Sir Thurio and my daughter. 

Pro. I do, my lord. 

Duie. And also, I think, thou art not ignorant 25 

How she opposes her against my will. 

Pro. She did, my lord, when Valentine was here. 

Duie. Ay, and perversely she persevers so. 

What mig^t we do to make the girl forget 

The love of Valentine, and love Sir Thurio? 30 

Pro. The best way is to slander Valentine 

With falsehood, cowardice, and poor descent. 
Three things that women highly hold in hate. 

Duie. Ay, but she '11 think that it is spoke in hate. 

Pro. Ay, if his enemy deliver it: 35 

Therefore it must with circumstance be spoken 
By one whom she esteemeth as his friend. 

Duie. Then you must undertake to slander him. 

28. persevers] perseveres Yi 3, 4. 

"cry so grievously" (of the wounded with "ever." Cf. "Bounty, pers^ver- 

Cassio m Othello^ I. i. 53), is indis- ance, mercy, lowliness," Macbeth^ iv. 

tinguishable from the ordinary sense iii. 93. 

" excessively." 35. deliver it] give vent to it, announce 

17. conceit] opinion, as Henry VII L it, as Othello ^ I. iii. 90. 

II. iii. 74, " the fair conceit | The king 36. with circumstance] with drcum- 

hath of you." Cf. Julius Cmsar^ I. iii. locution and hesitation, as in I. i. 36, 

162, " Him and his worth . . . you and Hamlet^ i. v. 127 : 

have right well conceited." " And so without more circumstance 

19. the better] the more readily. at all 

20, 21. your grace . . . your grace] I hold it fit that we shake hands 
so Ff; the anonymous conjecture and part"; 

"face" for the second destroys the and, perhaps. Taming^ v. i. 28, "to 
characteristic Lylian repetition. See leave frivolous circumstances, I pray 
Lyly's Works ^ Essay i. 124. you tell Signor Lucentio," etc. 
28. persevers] accent always on Schmidt well (juotes "the lie with 
penultimate, and so always spelt in circumstance," t*e. with some peri- 
early editions except in Lear^ ill. v. phrasis that softens it, As You Like It^ 
23 (Qq.) (Schmidt). Rolfe points out v. iv. 100. 
that m Alts Welly iv. ii. 37, it rhymes 



70 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actiii. 



Pro. And that, my lord, I shall be loath to do : 

'Tis an ill office for a gentleman, 40 

Especially against his very friend. 
Duke. Where your good word cannot advantage him, 

Your slander never can endamage him ; 

Therefore the office is indifferent, 

Being entreated to it by your friend. 45 

Pro. You have prevailed, my lord : if I can do it 

By aught that I can speak in his dispraise, 

She shall not long continue love to him. 

But say this weed her love from Valentine, 

It follows not that she will love Sir Thurio. 50 

Thu. Therefore, as you unwind her love from him, 

Lest it should ravel and be good to none. 

You must provide to bottom it on me ; 



49. weed'\ wean Rowe. 

40. ill oj^e far a gentleman] The 
feigned hesitation shows that he does 
not blink the £eur deeper dishonour of 
which he is really guilty ; the line is the 
most damnatory in his part. 

41. his veryfrimdl i,e, special, as in 
the 1572 ed. of Gascoigne's fVorks, 
" G. T. to his very friend H. W.» (ed. 
Hazlitt, i. 4). Rolfe compares Merchant 
of Venice, ill. ii. 226, "my very 
mends and countrymen," in intro- 
ducing; Lorenzo and Salerio to Portia. 
Massinger's title, A Very Woman, is 
hardly the same. 

42-44. Where . . . indifferent] The 
Duke's argument is transparently false, 
the sole object being to "endainage" 
Valentine. Similarly, lines 6-10, he 
forgot that the " weak impress of love " 
might fade as quickly for Thurio as for 
Valentine. The unworthy request he 
here stoops to make marks the lowest 
point in a character where worldliness 
has dulled the better instincts; but 
also perhaps reflects some contempt 
for Proteus. 

43. endamage] See New Eng, Diet. 
s.v. Schmidt cites another instance, 
1 Henry VI, ii. i. 77, and the Cent. 
Diet, recalls to me Euphues, I. 301, 
line 32, "y« deceitfull Phisition which 
recounteth all things that may endomage 
his patient, neuer telling anything y^ 
may recure him " (Fr. endommager). 



45. your friend] i,e, himself. 

49. weed] If this be the true reading, 
"from" must be put loosely for "of," 
Valentine being me weed that is to 
be plucked from her love. Rowe's 
" wean " is more natural ; but " wind," 
which Marshall well suggests, com- 
paring ''unwind," line 51, is more 
likely to have been mistaken for 
"weied." It is used of working a ship 
out of harbour, and figuratively of any 
devious practice. The Cent, Diet, 
quotes "some trick and wile | To 
winde our yonger brother out of prison," 
Toumeur's Revenget^s Tragedy, ill. i. 
(cf. IV. ii., " Go, wind him this way ") ; 
and Schmidt, Coriolanus, ill. iii. 64, 
"to wind yourself into a power 
tyrannical." 

50. // follows not, etc] Theobald 
quoted Davus in Terence's Andria, 11. 
h. 35, "Ridiculum caput! | Quasi 
necesse sit, si huic non dat, te illam 
uxorem ducere." 

53. bottom it] wind it as a skein or 
ball of thread on a core or bottom of 
thread or harder material. Cf. Taming, 
IV. iii. 139, "beat me to death with a 
bottom of brown thread." Steevens 
quoted Grange's Garden^ 1557 : 
** A bottome for your silke it seems 
My letters are become, 
Which oft with winding off and on 
Are wasted whole and some." 



sen.] OF VERONA 71 

Which must be done by praising me as much 

As you in worth dispraise Sir Valentine. 5 5 

Duke. And, Proteus, we dare trust you in this kind, 
Because we know, on Valentine's report, 
You are already Love's firm votary. 
And cannot soon revolt and change your mind. 
Upon this warrant shall you have access 60 

Where you with Silvia may confer at large ; 
For she is lumpish, heavy, melancholy, 
And, for your friend's sake, will be glad of you ; 
Where you may temper her by your persuasion 
To hate young Valentine and love my friend. 65 

Pro. As much as I can do, I will effect : 

But you, Sir Thurio, are not sharp enough ; 
jYou must lay lime to tangle her desires 
By wailful sonnets, whose composed rhymes 
( Should be full-fraught with serviceable vows. 70 

Duke. Ay, 

Much is the force of heaven-bred poesy. 

Pro. Say that upon the altar of her beauty 

You sacrifice your tears, your sighs, your heart : 
Write till your ink be dry, and with your tears 75 

55. worth'\ word Capell conj. 71, 72. Ay^ AftuA] in one line Ff, Capell ; 
Pope omitted Ay, 

62. lumpish'] dull, spiritless. Halli- Faerie Queene, v. vi. 26. For the idea 

well quotes Gascoigne s /ix-dsj/fl, 1566, cf. Proteus' "complaining names," i. 

" Asldrawethemoretolumpisheage." ii. 128. His advice here, while it 

64. Where] whereas, as in. i. 74. illustrates Thuria's duhiess and serves 

Welcomed for Valentine's sake, yet you to blind the Duke, is intended to for- 

may persuade her against him. ward his own suit ; in iv. ii. Zi sqq, he 

64. temfer'lmoxim, like wax ; 2 Henry manages to appropriate the credit of the 

IV, IV. iii. 122, "I have him already music, and even Thurio has a gleam of 

tempering between my finger and my suspicion, ib, 18-23. 

thumb ; and shortly will I seal with him." 09. composed rhymes] carefully- 

68. tangle] ensnare, strictly enmesh, wrought verses. 

a mixed metaphor with ** lime." Some- 70. serviceable vows] vows of devoted 
thing of the same confusion hangs about service, not profitable to the writer. 
Hamlet^ ill. iii. 68, "O limed soul 73-81. Aiy Ma/, ^/f.] The lyric char- 
that, struggling to be free | Art more acter is here introduced without loss of 
engaged," a result that would follow dramatic propriety, 
from a net, but hardly from limed twigs. 75, 76. Write . . . Moist it cigain] 
A bolder mixture of metaphor is "to i.e, say you do so, another conceit sug- 
take arms against a sea of troubles," gested for Thurio's sonnet. Cf. LoTfe s 
Hamlety ill. i. 59. Labour's Lost^ iv. iii. 342, 345, " Never 

69. wailful sonnets] The Cent, Diet, durst poet touch a pen to wnte | Until 
quotes "waylfull plaints," Spenser's his inkweretemper'a with Love's sighs." 



n 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actih. 



Moist it again ; and frame some feeling line 

That may discover such integrity : 

For Orpheus' lute was strung with poets' sinews ; 

Whose golden touch could soften steel and stones, 

Make tigers tame, and huge leviathans 8o 

Forsake unsounded deeps to dance on sands. 

After your dire-lamenting elegies. 

Visit by night your lady's chamber-window 

With some sweet consort ; to their instruments 

Tune a deploring dump : the night's dead silence 8 5 

Will well become such sweet-complaining grievance. 

This, or else nothing, will inherit her. 

Duke. This discipline shows thou hast been in love. 

Thu, And thy advice this night I '11 put in practice. 

Therefore, sweet Proteus, my direction-giver, 90 

77. such'] strict Collier MS. 84. consort] Ff, concert Hanmer. 

dieted by A Whip for an Ape^ 1589, 
line 53, ** Now Tarleton *s dead the 
Consort (company) lackes a vice." 

85. dump] Romeo and Juliet y iv. v. 
104, "play me some merry dump, to 
comfort me," shows that the word itself 
did not always cajry the usoal sense of 
melancholy, which it bears here and in 
LucrecOt 1127. 

86. ^rimzifr^] lamenting. Rolfe cites 
Sonnet 30, line 9, rightly as the context 
shows, but wrongly, surely, Romeo 
and Juliet, I. i. 155.— In iv. iii. 37, 
"grievances" seems used for grieving 
thoughts. 

87. inherif] gain, obtam ; as Romeo 
and Juliet, i. ii. 30, " even such delight 
. . . shall you to-night | Inherit at my 
house'* (Rolfe).— Just so the booby 
Cloten in Cymbeline, il. iii. ii, is 
"advised to give her music o* morn- 
ings ; they say it will penetrate." 

88. discipline] lesson, set of rules. 
The Duke's remark reminds us that in 
Montemayor's tale the previous court- 
ship of FeUsmena by Don Felix, com- 
pressed by Shakespeare into Act I., 
had lasted "almost a whole yeere," 
e.g, " The Toumies were now renewed, 
the musicke by night did neuer cease ; 
amorous letters and verses were re-con- 
tinued on both sides" (p. 283). 

90. direction ' giver] pointer of my 
aim. Toumeur's Revengtt^s Tragedy, 



76. Afois^ The verb is found, sajrs 
Craig, in Golding's Otnd and North's 
Plutarch. 

77. such integrity] such single-hearted 
devotion as you are asserting ; let the 
passion in the lines witness the sincerity 
of that in your heart. 

78. Orpheus* lute, etc] Cf. the song 
in Henry VIIL ill. i. 3; and Levis 
Labour^ s Lost, I v. iii. 339, "bright 
Apollo's lute strung with his hair." 
Cl. Ovid, TrisU iv. i. 17, "Cum 
traheret sylvas Orpheus et dura canendo 

I Saxa," etc. 

82. elegies] love -poems, like the 
EUgice of Tibullus, etc 

84. consort] company of musicians. 
Staunton compares our use of "band." 
A derivative sense is shown in Florio's 
Worlde of fVordes, 1598 (quoted by 
Halliwell), " Conchito, a consort, or 
concordance in musick " ; and so in 
^ Henry VI, in. ii. 327, "And boding 
screech owls make the consort full 
(Schmidt) — a passage which shows the 
idea of music already attached to the 
word (by confusion with Fr, concert^ 
It. concerto. New Eng, Diet.), and not 
due merely to accompan3ang words. 
The simpler sense, "company," is seen 
in IV. i. 64, below, and Lear, 11. i. 99, 
"he was of that consort." Malone's 
distinction of the senses by the accent, 
though true for Shakespeare, is contra- 



sc.li.] OF VERONA 73 

Let us into the city presently 

To sort some gentlemen well skill'd in music. 

I have a sonnet that will serve the turn 

To give the onset to thy good advice. 
Duke. About it, gentlemen ! 95 

Pro. We '11 wait upon your grace till after supper, 

And afterward determine our proceedings. 
Duke. Even now about it ! I will pardon you. \Exeunt. 



ACT IV 



SCENE I. — A Forest near Milan. 

Enter certain Outlaws. 

First Out Fellows, stand fast ; I see a passenger. 

Sec. Out. If there be ten, shrink not, but down with 'em. 

Enter VALENTINE and Speed. 

Third Out. Stand, sir, and throw us that you have about 
ye: 

A Forest near Milan] Grant "White ; A forest leading towards Mantua Theo- 
bald ; The frontiers of Mantua. A Forest. Capell. 

IV. iv., ''A mother to give aim to her on Silvia's words (iv. iii. 23), and cf. 

own daughter " {ii,e. incite to lust), and v. ii. 46. But Grant White pointed 

Webster's ^/4//^Z)^w7, i6i2[m.i. 251 out that in v. i. 11 Eglamour says, 

"I am at the mark, sir : I '11 give aim " the forest is not three leagues off ' ; 

to you, I And tell you how near you and this forest, on the way to Mantua, 

shoot," quoted by Halliwell on v. iii. or Verona (iv. i. 17), but near Milan, 

99, seem more to the point here. must be that in which the furitives are 

92. sorti select, as S Henry VI. v. met by the Milanese Friar Laurence, 

vi. 85, "But I will sort a pitchy day v. ii. 36, and later attacked by 

for thee " (Steevens). the outlaws. Stage-custom allowed, or 

94. give the onset to] make a begin- was beginning to allow, an ideal treat- 

ning of following. ment of Time (as in the first Act of 

97. dSf/^rm/^ perhaps " bring to an Macbeth — the distance between Fife 

issue, conclusion, or execution " ; gener- and Forres) ; but nearness to Milan 

ally intransitive in this sense, but cf. is less hopelessly inconsistent with the 

Richard II, I. iii. 150, "The sly slow rapid course of the action in Acts I v. 

hours shall not determinate | The date- and v., in which the Friar has time to 

less limit of thy dear exile." return and warn the Duke, and T^oteus 

A^ TIT ^ , ^^ set off and rescue Silvia near the 

Act! v. Scene 1. western fringe of the wood (she has 

A Forest near Milan] Theobald's been captured at a point farther east, 

statement (he has " on the Frontiers of v. iii. 9), before she is brought bdbre 

Mantua " at the outs et) seems grounded Valentine. 



74 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

If not, we '11 make you sit, and rifle you. 
Sp€$d. Sir, we are undone ; these are the villains 5 ' 

That all the travellers do fear so much. 
V(d. My friends, — 

First Out. That *s not so, sir : we are your enemies. 
Sec. Out Peace ! we *11 hear him. 

Third Out. Ay, by my beard, will we, for he 's a proper 
man. 10 

Vol. Then know that I have little wealth to lose : 

A man I am cross'd with adversity ; 

My riches are these poor habiliments, 

Of which if you should here disfumish me, 

You take the sum and substance that I have. 1 5 

Sec. Out. Whither travel you ? 
Vol. To Verona. 
First Out Whence came you ? 
V(d. From Milan. 

Third Out. Have you long sojourn'd there ? 20 

Val. Some sixteen months, and longer might have stay'd, 

If crooked fortune had not thwarted me. 
First Out What, were you banish'd thence ? 
VcU. I was. 
Sec. Out. For what offence ? 25 

4. «V] Ff I, 2; sir Ff 3, 4. 5. Sir\ Ff, 0, Sir Capell. 1 1, wealth] 

omitted Ff 2-4, left Hanmer. 

4. «V] in poor antithesis to " Stand," line 26, Iffida, ironically, "Will you 

line 3. not manne vs, Fidus, beeing so proper 

10. will we\ This inversion, in re- a man ? " 

sponse, especially of words previously 13. My riches . . . kadiiiments] This 

used in right order, is pretty common ; line seems to be an echo of two in the 

cf. IV. iv. 56, ** No, mdeed, did she old play Taming of A Shrew, among 

not"; Taming^ I. i. 252, "Yes, by the very few wmch Shakespeare pre- 

Saint Anne, do I." served in his later adaptation : 

10. a proper man] fmt'\oo\img{t\\QWf "Euen in these honest meane abilli- 

rather of stature than feature. Malone, ments, 

indeed, denies the latter sense ; point- Our purses shall be rich, our gar- 

ing to "goodly shape," line 56, to ments plaine" 

Coles* Latin Diet,, wnere "proper" is {Shakespeare Library, 

represented hy procerus, and to "pren- Pt. ii. vol. ii. p. 527). 

tices proper and tall" in a ballad on 21. Some sixteen months] Marshall 

Essex. Portia indecisively calls Faulcon- thinks the statement fictitious, like those 

bridge "a proper man's picture," ^(ffr- that follow, urging that fourteen to 

chant of Venice, I. ii. 65 (Rolfe), and I fifteen months is too long a time to 

find in "Whitney, " A comely proper allow between the first and third scenes 

woman, though not handsome," Pepys* of Act i., as we should have to do. See 

Diary^ I. 98. Cf. Euphues^ xi. 68, note on Time, Introduction (end). 



SCI.] OF VERONA 75 

Vol. For that which now torments me to rehearse : 
I kiird a man, whose death I much repent ; 
But yet I slew him manfully, in fight, 
Without false vantage or base treachery. 

First Out. Why, ne'er repent it, if it were done so. 30 

But were you banish'd for so small a fault ? 

Val. I was, and held me glad of such a doom. 

Sec, Out. Have you the tongues ? 

Val. My youthful travail therein made me happy. 

Or else I often had been miserable. 35 

Third Out. By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar. 
This fellow were a king for our wild faction ! 

First Out. We '11 have him. Sirs, a word. 

Speed. Master, be one of them; it's an honourable 

kind of thievery. 40 

Val. Peace, villain ! 

Sec. Out. Tell us this : have you anything to take to ? 

Val. Nothing but my fortune. 

Third Out. Know, then, that some of us are gentlemen. 
Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth 45 

Thrust from the company of awful men : 

34. fravatf] Ff i, 2 ; trove/ Ff 3, 4. 35. /] omitted Ff 3, 4 ; deen] bum 
often F I. 46. awfiil] Ff, hxwful Hawkins conj. ap. Steevens, 1773. 

31. sosma/lafiiuI^C{.]me $2. laws, though not by Italians. Rolfe 

32. ^/ad of such a doom] i.e. glad to reminds us that the outlaws in Arden 
get off so cheaply. forest are said to '* live like the old Robin 

33. tA^ tongues} foreign languages. Hood 0/ England,*' As You Like It, 1. 
Rolfe quotes Much Ado, v. i. 167, "he i. 107 ; that Silence sings of " Robin 
hath the tongues." Hood, Scarlet, and John," ^ Henry IV. 

34. travail] Probablv Valentine means v. iii. 107; and that Valentine's chivalry 
"study," though botn ** travail " and is a reminiscence of the Sherwood rule. 
" travel " are used at this date in either In Introduction, pp. xxvi-xxvii, I have 
sense, a fact eloquent of Ae toils attend- su^ested Shakespeare's possible know- 
ing a journey. In Bercher's Nobylytye ledge of Munday's two Robin Hood 
off Wvmen, 1559 (Roxb. Club, pp. plays. For the transfer to Italy, cf. 
87, 88), "travelenge in sutche maner ^£Ayr2x6^Q^sDantonandPithias,c.i$6^ 
of Stodye as then was there (at Cam- where the Greek Aristippus in Sicily 
bridge) approved ... To this I thought alludes to "the three Cranes in Vintree." 
good to add an experyence of travell 42. to take to] resource or means of 
and knowledge off more contris then subsistence: desperation being an essen- 
myne owne." At line 16 above, the tial qualification for member^p of the 
Folio spells "trauell"; in Tivelfth band. 

Nighty V. 166, " Since when ... 46. awful men} men who command 

toward my graue | I haue tra$taifd hut respect, as themselves respecting moral 

two houres." ana social law. For tne causative 

36. J^odin Hood's fat friar} Friar sense, cf. Taming, v. ii. 109, " awful 

Tuck, appropriately invoked by out- rule and right supremacy"; for the 



76 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

Myself was from Verona banished 

For practising to steal away a lady, 

An heir, and niece allied unto the duke. 
Sec. Out. And I from Mantua, for a gentleman, 50 

Who, in my mood, I stabb'd unto the heart. 
First Out. And I for such like petty crimes as these. 

But to the purpose, — for we cite our faults. 

That they may hold excused our lawless lives ; 

And partly, seeing you are beautified 5 5 

With goodly shape, and by your own report 

A linguist, and a man of such perfection 

As we do in our quality much want, — 
Sec. Out. Indeed, because you are a banish'd man. 

Therefore, above the rest, we parley to you : 60 

Are you content to be our general ? 

To make a virtue of necessity. 

And live, as we do, in this wilderness ? 
Third Out. What say'st thou ? wilt thou be of our consort ? 

49. An heir^ and niece\ Ff 3, 4 ; And heire and Neece Ff I, 2 ; An heir, and 
near Theobald and Camb. 58. wan/,—] Theobald, want, Ff. 

passive, Richard II. ni. iii. 76, "To Charles v.'s supremacy at Milan was 

pay their awful duty to our presence." there any independent duke of Verona, 

Instances of either are quoted by New which at the beginning of the fifteenth 

Eng. Diet, of 1 87 1 and 1879. century had passed under the dominion 

48. practising] plotting, as Lear, ill. of the Venetian Republic. 

ii. 57, ** under covert and convenient 51. ptood] angry fit. Cf. the old A 

seeming Hast practised on man's life" ; Shrew , 1594 {JShakspeare Library, 11. 

and Goneril to the fallen Edmund, ii. p. 503), "this brainsick man, | 

V. iii. 151, " This is practice, Glou- That in his mood cares not to murder 

cester." me." 

49. heir] of common gender ; " heir- 58. in our quality] in our line of 
ess " is not found in Shakespeare. Cf. life, occupation. Monck Mason quoted 
Tempest, I. ii. 58, " his only heir | Hamlet, 11. ii. 363, " Will they pursue 
And princess" (Schmidt). the quality no longer than mey can 

49. niece allied] "niece" may also sing ?" (of'^the child-actors). The sense 

mean granddaughter, or simply relative, survives in the phrase "in the quality 

Theol»ld*s emendation has been ac- of" (capacity of), 

cepted by all editors save Warburton 60. Therefore, above the rest] for that 

and Marshall ; but I should defend the more than any reason. 

Folio reading as, not two expressions, 60. parley to] Schmidt quotes 2 

but a formal ceremonial term, or else as Henry VI . IV. vii. 82, " parleyed imto 

meaning "niece by marriage." In King foreign kings," and two instances of 

John, II. ii. 125, as Grant White noted, " parley with." 

the Ff read " neere " for " niece." 04. of our consort] ue. company ; as 

49. the duke] Shakespeare does not " of that consort," Lear, ii. i. 99, 

trouble himselfabout historical accuracy; though there the sense may be "habit 

see note on i. iii. 27. Neither at the of consorting." Cf. note on III. ii. 84, 

date of composition nor at the time of above. 



sc.li.] OF VERONA 77 

Say ay, and be the captain of us all : 65 

We '11 do thee homage and be ruled by thee, 
Love thee as our commander and our king. 

First Out. But if thou scorn our courtesy, thou diest. 

Sec. Out. Thou shalt not live to brag what we have offer'd. 

Vol. I take your offer, and will live with you, 70 

Provided that you do no outrages 
On silly women or poor passengers. 

Third Out. No, we detest such vile base practices. 
Come, go with us, we '11 bring thee to our crews, 
And show thee all the treasure we have got ; 75 

Which, with ourselves, all rest at thy dispose. 

\Exeunt. 

SCENE II. — Milan. Outside the Dukis Palace, 
under SUvicls Chamber. 

Enter Proteus. 
Pro. Already have I been false to Valentine, 
And now I must be as unjust to Thurio. 
Under the colour of commending him, 
I have access my own love to prefer : 
But Silvia is too fair, too true, too holy, 5 

To be corrupted with my worthless gifts. 
When I protest true loyalty to her, 
She twits me with my falsehood to my friend ; 
When to her beauty I commend my vows, 

74. crews\ Ff, cceoe Collier MS. 

Scene ii. 
Outside . . . Chamber] Camb.; Open place, tinder Silvia's Apartment Theo- 
bald. 

72. silly] simple, innocent, as con- Scene il. 
stantly in the phrase " silly sheep." 

72. poor passengers] travellers with- 3- f^Awr] fair show, pretence ;/«/fW 
out money; "passenger" as in line i. desar, ii. i. 29, "the quarrel Will 

73. Noy we detest, etc] but cf. v. iv. bear no colour for the thing he is *' ; and 
16, 17. These outlaws are a weak verb, " That show oi such an ezerdse 
point in the play. may colour | Your loveliness, III. L 

74. crews] bands, v. iii. 12 has been 45. 

urged in support of " cave,'* to which 9. commend] address, direct. Mac- 

the next Ime is more appropriate, beth, I. vii. 11, "Commends the in- 

Halliwell refers to line 2 as proof that gredients of our poison'd chalice | To 

only a few of the outlaws are present. our own lips." 



78 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

She bids me think how I have been forsworn lo 

In breaking faith with Julia whom I loved : 
And notwithstanding all her sudden quips, 
The least whereof would quell a lover's hope, 
Yet, spaniel-like, the more she spurns my love, 
The more it grows, and fawneth on her still. 1 5 

But here comes Thurio : now must we to her window. 
And give some evening music to her ear. 

Enter Thurio and Musicians. 

Thu. How now, Sir Proteus, are you crept before us ? 
Pro. Ay, gentle Thurio ; for you know that love 

Will creep in service where it cannot go. 20 

Thu. Ay, but I hope, sir, that you love not here. 
Pro. Sir, but I do ; or else I would be hence. 
Thu. Who? SUvia? 

Pro. Ay, Silvia ; for your sake. 

Thu. I thank you for your own. Now, gentlemen. 

Let's tune, and to it lustily awhile. 25 

Enter^ at a distance^ HOST, and Julia in boji^s clothes. 

Host. Now, my young guest, methinks you're ally- 
choUy : I pray you, why is it ? 

17. Enter . . . Musicians] Rowe ; Musitian Ff before line i. 25. tune\ 
tume Ff 2-4. Enter . . . clothes] Rowe (at a distance, added Capell) ; omitted Ff. 
27. why\what¥i2-^. 

12. quips] taunts, retorts. In Lyl/s 20. creep] of slow disabled move- 

Campaspej ill. ii. 30, Manes defines a ment. Reed quoted Kelly's Scottish 

quip as "a short saying of a sharp Proverbs y p. 220, " Kindness will creep 

witte, with a bitter sense in a sweete where it cannot gang"; but the orig- 

word." inal is seen better in the Towneley 

i^j 1$, spaniel-like, etc.] Euphues, /yayj, Secunda Pastorum, " kynde [t .^. 

I. 249, line 7 (of Philautus in love), natural instinct] wille crepe | Where it 

" Wilt thou resemble the kinde (true- may not go.** 

bred) Spaniell, which the more he is 22. be hence] So " art hence,*' in. i, 

beaten the fonder he is ? '* 248. 

17. Enter Thurio and Musicians] So 25. Enter . . . Host, and Julia in 
Cloten in Cymbeline, ii. iii., presents boys clothes] In Montemayor's tale we 
Imogen with a charming song, which have: ''being come to the desired 
ill accords with our impression of the place, I took vp mine Inne in a streete 
suitor. less frequented with concurse of people. 

18. ^<f//] of (quick?) unnoticed move- And the great desire I had to see the 
ment, 2J& 'm As You Like //, I. ii. 165, destroier of my ioy did not suffer me to 
" How now, daughter and cousin, are thinke of any other thing, but how or 
you crept hither to see the wrestling?" where I might see him. To inquire of 



SC. II.] 



OF VERONA 



79 



Jul. Marry, mine host, because I cannot be merry. 
Host. Come, we '11 have you merry : I *11 bring you 

where you shall hear music, and see the gentle- 30 

man that you asked for. 
Jul. But shall I hear him speak ? 
Host. Ay, that you shall. 

Jul. That will be music. [Music plays. 

Host. Hark, hark 1 3 5 

Jul. Is he among these ? 
Host. Ay : but, peace ! let 's hear 'em. 



Son£^. 

Who is Silvia ? what is she, 

That all our swains commend her ? 

Holy, fair, and wise is she ; 

The heaven such grace did lend her. 

That she might admired be. 



40 



31. you] omitted F 2-4. 34. Music pla]^] Capell. 



him of mine host I durst not, [Shake- 
speare changes this, lines 30, 31] lest 
my comming might (perhaps) haue bene 
discouered ; and to seeke him foorth I 
thought it not best, lest some inopinate 
mishap might haue fallen out, whereby 
I might haue bene knowen. Wherefore 
I passed all that day in these perplexi- 
ties, while night came on, eacn hower 
whereof (me thought) was a whole 
yeere vnto me. But midnight being a 
little past, mine host called at my 
chamber doore, and tolde me if I was 
desirious to heare some braue musicke, 
I should arise quickly, and open a 
window towards the street. The which 
I did by and by, and making no noise 
at all, I heard how Don Felix his Page, 
called Fabius (whom I knew by nis 
voice), saide to others that came with 
him. Now it is time, my Masters, bicause 
the Lady is in her gallerie ouer her 
garden, taking the fresh aire of the 
coole night. He had no sooner saide 
so, but they began to winde three 
Comets and a Ssurkbot, with such skill 
and sweetenesse, that it seemed celestiall 
musicke. And then began a voice to 
sing the sweetest (in my opinion) that 
euer Iheard"(p. 285). 
26, 27. allyckclly] In this case the 



mistake, repeated Merry Wives, I. iv. 
164 (Mrs. Quickly), does not, as com- 
monly in Slikespeare, result in anoUier 
word. Schmidt compares " Malli- 
cholie," Love*8 Ladour's Losi, iv. iii. 14. 
Julia's depression must be due to the 
mroad of doubt as to Proteus' reception 
of her; so Lamb, Tales from Shake- 
speare. 

30, 31. gentleman ihat^ou asked fori 
Without deleting the herome's hesitation 
on this point, Shakespeare could hardly 
have brought the Host and Julia on to 
the stage. 

32. hear him speak"] Montemayor, 
p. 286, ** the sweete voice of my Don 
FeUx." 

37. Song.] We need not suppose this " 
Thurio's " sonnet " of in. ii. 93, as from 
lines 7-15 much has evidently occurred 
since then, and this cannot be the first 
serenading of Silvia. Cf. line 94, note. 
In Lyl/s EndimioHf iv. ii. 24-27, we 
have a burlesque love-poem by Ae 
burlesque Sir Thopas, but neither here 
nor in Cloten's case {Cymdeline, 11. iii.) 
does Shakespeare see need to sacrifice 
his opportumty for a prettv song, 

40. tvise is she] To avoid the repeti- 
tion of "fihe" the CoUier MS. correc- 
tor read " wise as free " (HaUiwell). 



80 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

Is she kind as she is fair ? 

For beauty lives with kindness. 
Love doth to her eyes repair, 45 

To help him of his blindness. 
And, being help'd, inhabits there. 

Then to Silvia let us sing. 

That Silvia is excelling ; 
She excels each mortal thing 50 

Upon the dull earth dwelling : 
To her let us garlands bring. 

Host. How nowl are you sadder than you were 
before? How do you, man? the music likes 
you not 55 

Jul. You mistake ; the musician likes me not 

Host. Why, my pretty youth ? 

Jfd. He plays false, father. 

Host. How ? out of tune on the strings ? 

Jul. Not so ; but yet so false that he grieves my very 60 
heart-strings. 

Host. You have a quick ear. 

Jul. Ay, I would I were deaf; it makes me have a 
slow heart 

Host. I perceive you delight not in music. 65 

Jul. Not a whit, when it jars so. 

Host. Hark, what fine change is in the music ! 

Jul. Ay, that change is the spite. 

44. lives with kindnesil flourishes, 67. change\ variety, variation; we 

in itself and in repate, upon the doing can hardly credit the Host with the 

of kind acts ; the idea is that of the old modem technical sense of modulation 

proverb, " Handsome is as handsome from one key to another, 

does." 68. tkatcAan£^isth€spit€]lnYonge, 

47. inhabits] Usually intransitive in p. 286, "The great ioy that I felt in 

Shakespeare ; as I. i. 44, and v. iv. 7, hearing him cannot be imagined, for 

" O thou that dost inhabit iu my (me thought) I heard him nowe, as in 

breast." that happie and passed time of our 

49. excelling] same absolute use, loues. j^ut after the deceit of this 

line 82. imagination was discouered, seeing with 

Jii. dull earth] So, of Portia, " the mine eies, and hearing with mine eares, 

e world Hath not her fellow," Mer^ that this musick was bestowed vpon 

chant of Venice^ in. v. 73. another, and not on me, God knowes 

14. likes] pleases, as often. what a bitter deaUi it was vnto my 

' slew] heavy (Craig). soule." 



It 



sc. 



II.] OF VERONA 81 



Host, You would have them always play but one 

thing. 70 

JuL I would always have one play but one thing. 

But, host, doth this Sir Proteus that we talk on 

Often resort unto this gentlewoman ? 
Host, I tell you what Launce, his man, told me, — he 

loved her out of all nick. 75 

Jul, Where is Launce? 
Host, Gone to seek his dog ; which to-morrow, by his 

master's command, he must carry for a present 

to his lady. 
JuL Peace ! stand aside : the company parts. 80 

Pro, Sir Thurio, fear not you : I will so plead. 

That you shall say my cunning drift excels. 
Thu, Where meet we ? 

Pro, At Saint Gregory's well. 

Thu, Farewell. 

[Exeunt Thu, and Musicians. 

Enter SiLViA above. 
Pro. Madam, good even to your ladyship. 

83. Exeunt . . . Musicians. Enter Silvia above] Rowe ; omitted Ff. 

72. talk onY^ on " exchangeable with 82. excels^ This absolute use oolv 

"of*' ; Merchant of Venice^ v. i* 151, survives of persons. Cf. "excelling, 

"What talk you of the posy," etc. ; line 49, above. 

Taming^ V. ii. 72, "I'll venture so 83. St, Gregorys well'\ An actual 

much of my hawk or hound." well near Milan, of which Halliwell 

75. £)«/<2/^a//mV>&] beyond all reckon- reproduces a print (with "Gregorie" 

ing, the Host's characteristic metaphor across it) from a view of Milan in 

from the keeping of a score by nicks or Braun's Civitates Orbis Terrarum^ 1582. 

notches on a stick or tally (Warburton). He says, " the notice of it by Shake- 

Steevens quotes the innkeeper in Row- speare is curious, either as showing his 

ley's A Woman Never Vexed, 1632, acquaintance with Italy or with works 

" I have carried | The tallies at my on that country, or as an evidence of 

girdle seven years together, | For I did the Continental origin of the play in a 

ever love to deal honestly in the romance or drama yet to be discovered " 

nick." (fol. ed. 1854, ii. 149). Of mineral 

77. Ats dog] Perhaps Theobald is springs in England, the virtue of which 

right in supposing the dog he is in was credited to saints, Harrison {De- 

search of to be, not Crab, but Proteus' scription of England, ii. 23 ad init,) 

little lap-dog, which in iv. iv. 60 he mentions St. Vincent's (near Clifton), 

tells us has been stolen by the boys ; and Halliewell {t,e, Hol)rwell in Flint- 

though we need not change iv. iv. 7. shire, associated with St. Winifred, 

82. drift] as II. vi. 43, III. i. 18. Camden's Britannia, 1586, p. 394). 

lidsYi^s Pierce Pennilesse, "all cooson- Another Halliwell exists near Bolton- 

ages, all cunning drifts." le-Moors. 

6 



82 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

Si/. I thank you for your music, gentlemen. 8$ 

Who is that that spake ? 
Pro. One, lady, if you knew his pure heart's truth, 

You would quickly learn to know him by his 
voice. 
Sti. Sir Proteus, as I take it. 

Pro. Sir Proteus, gentle lady, and your servant 90 

Si/. What *s your will ? 

Pro. That I may compass yours. 

Si/. You have your wish ; my will is even this : 

That presently you hie you home to bed. 

Thou subtle, perjured, false, disloyal man ! 

Think'st thou I am so shallow, so conceitless, 95 

To be seduced by thy flattery. 

That hast deceived so many with thy vows ? 

Return, return, and make thy love amends. 

For me, — by this pale queen of night I swear, 

I am so far from granting thy request, 100 

That I despise thee for thy wrongful suit ; 

And by and by intend to chide myself 

Even for this time I spend in talking to thee. 
Pro. I grant, sweet love, that I did love a lady ; 

But she is dead. 
/«/. [Aside.] Twere false, if I should speak it; 105 

For I am sure she is not buried. 
Si/. Say that she be ; yet Valentine thy friend 

Survives ; to whom, thyself art witness, 

89. as I take iV] omitted Ff 3, 4. 92. even] ever Ff 2-4, 105, 117, 125. 
[Aside] Pope. 

91. f^w/ojj] achieve, obtain; Proteus the cause that made thee forget thy 

plays on "win your goodwill" and former loue. Comfort thy selfe, for 

"perform your least wish." there shall not want another to make 

94. Thou subtle f etc] The vigour thee forget thy second" (cf. line 97), 

and promptitude of Silvia's reply implies Yonge, p. 294. 

what we already knew from IV. ii. 7-15, 95. conceitless] without perception; 

that this is not Proteus* first approach, usually " imagination," here of imagina- 

Celia's letter to Don Felix is to the tion which gives insight into other's 

same purport, though not so strong, minds. Rolfe quotes 2 Henry IV, 11. 

The nearest likeness is ** For well thou iv. 263, " his wit 's as thick as Tewkes- 

mightest haue denied, or not declared bury mustard ; there 's no more conceit 

thy passed loue, without giuing me in him than is in a mallet." 
occasion to condemne thee by thine 106. buried] trisyllable, 
owne confession. Thou saiest I was 



sc.li.] OF VERONA 83 

I am betroth'd : and art yiou not ashamed 

To wrong him with thy importunacy ? no 

Pro, I likewise hear that Valentine is dead. 

SiL And so suppose am I ; for in his grave 
Assure thyself my love is buried. 

Pro. Sweet lady, let me rake it from the earth. 

Sil. Go to thy lady's grave, and call hers thence ; 115 

Or, at the least, in hers sepulchre thine. 

////. [Aside.] He heard not that 

Pro., Madam, if your heart be so obdurate, 

Vouchsafe me yet your picture for my love, 
. The picture that is hanging in your chamber ; 120 
To that I '11 speak, to that I '11 sigh and weep : 
For since the substance of your perfect self 
Is else devoted, I am but a shadow ; 
' And to your shadow will I make true love. 

Jul. [Aside.] If 'twere a substance, you would, sure, de- 
ceive it, 125 
And make it but a shadow, as I am. 

Si/. I am very loath to be your idol, sir ; 

But since your falsehood shall become you well 
To worship shadows and adore false shapes. 
Send to me in the morning, and I '11 send it : 130 

And so, good rest. 

Pro. As wretches have o'emight 

1 12. kts] Ff 2-4, herYi. 115. hers] her Ff 3, 4. 128. your falsehood] 
you^re false, it Johnson conj. 

no. importunacy'] accent antepen- 128, 129. since. . . To worship, etc.] 

ultimate, as Timon of Athens, II. ii. shall find appropriate emplojrment in 

42, ** Your importunacy cease till after the worship of, a mere hasty confiision 

dinner" (Rolfe). for "since it shall become your faJse- 

117. heard] heeded— of wilful deaf- hood well To worship." 

ness. 130. ril send it] In this gift of the 

123. else] elsewhere, to another. portrait, and perhaps in granting the 

123. but a shadow] reduced to mere colloquy at all, Silvia can hardly be 
nothing; cf. Valentine's "Nothing," absolved from a touch of coquetry ; but 
III. i. 1918. Repeated line 126 and iv. her flight has already been determined 
iv. 202, but with additional allusion to on, iv. iii. 2, and she may wish to lull 
her disguise. suspicion of it. In Victor's adaptation 

124. shadow] portrait, as iv. iv. 125, of 1762 a line was inserted with this 
and JEuphueSf ii. 42, line 20, " Appelles sense — " It may divert him from my 
shadowes," and verb, "to shadow a intendedflight,"meant, of course, asan 
ladle's face," Campaspe, I. ii. 71. aside, though not so marked. 



84 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

That wait for execution in the mom. 

[Exeunt Pro. and Sil. severally. 
Jul. Host, will you go? 
Host. By my halidom, I was fast asleep. 
Jul. Pray you, where lies Sir Proteus ? 135 

Host. Marry, at my house. Trust me, I think 'tis 

almost day. 
Jul. Not so ; but it hath been the longest night 

That e'er I watch'd, and the most heaviest. 

[Exeunt. 

SCENE lU.—The Same. 

Enter Eglamour. 

Egl. This is the hour that Madam Silvia 

Entreated me to call and know her mind : 
There *s some great matter she 'Id employ me in. 
Madam, madam ! 

Enter SiLViA above. 

Sil. Who calls? 

Egl. Your servant and your friend ; 

One that attends your ladyship's command. 5 

Sil Sir Eglamour, a thousand times good morrow. 
Egl. As many, worthy lady, to yourself: 

According to your ladyship's impose, 

132. Exeunt . . . severally] omitted F i ; Exeunt Ff 2-4. 139. Exeunt] 
omitted F i. 

Scene ill. 

The Same] Capell ; Dyce includes scenes iii. and iv. in scene ii. 4. Enter 
Silvia above] Rowe. 

134. ^fl/M&7w] Probably a mere inver- the Gentleman, where my Iffida 
sion of "holidam" (holy dame — i,e, lay." 

our Lady), which is found, Taming^ \. 139. most Aeaviest} Cf. "most un- 

ii. 99. — Minsheu, however, Dictionary y kindest cxXy* Julius Ccesar, III. ii. 187. 

161 7, derived it from Saxon hcUig holy, ^ 

and **domef dominium aut jud&cium" eocene iii. 

(Malone). 8. impose\ command imposed; the 

135. /iVj] lodges, sleeps. Richard only other instance quoted being 7>7tf// 
///. V. iii. 7, "Up with my tent there ! Chev. ii. ii. (Bullen's Old Plays, m. 
here will I lie to-night, | But where to- 293), " But this impose is nothing, 
morrow?": Euphues, II. 54, "my honoured King." Rolfe compares 
parents being of great familiarity with " dispose," 11. vii. S6, IV. i. 76. 



sc.iii,] OF VERONA 85 

I am thus early come to know what service 
It is your pleasure to command me in. lo 

Sil, O Eglamour, thou art a gentleman — 

Think not I flatter, for I swear I do not, — 

Valiant, wise, remorseful, well accomplish'd : 

Thou art not ignorant what dear good will 

I bear unto the banish'd Valentine ; 1 5 

Nor how my father would enforce me marry 

Vain Thurio, whom my very soul abhors. 

Thyself hast loved ; and I have heard thee say 

No grief did ever come so neStr thy heart 

As when thy lady and thy true love died, 20 

Upon whose grave thou vow'dst pure chastity. 

Sir Eglamour, I would to Valentine, 

To Mantua, where I hear he makes abode ; 

And, for the ways are dangerous to pass, 

I do desire thy worthy company, 25 

Upon whose faith and honour I repose. 

Urge not my father's anger, Eglamour, 

But think upon my grief, a lady's grief. 

And on the justice of my fljang hence. 

17. abhors] Hanmer, abhot^d] Ff. 19. ever\ omitted Ff 2-4. 

13. Valiant, wise] Pope read " Vali- Steevens supposed, but not necessarily, 

ant and wise," and Walker held the RolJfe suggests that Eglamour had lost 

line unemended, **out of tune and his betrothed, not his wife, and I am 

strange " ; but it is in accord widi a reminded of Iffida's long mourning for 

tendency the play elsewhere exhibits, her betrothed Thirsus in Euphues, 11. 

to count syllables rather than trust the 79, and of Fidus' retirement on the 

ear, or to use syllables generally elided death of Iffida (ib, ), as well as of 

to eke out the line ; e.g, 11. vii. 27 Don Felix* on the death of Celia in 

"hindered," 32 "ocean" (contrast 69), Montemayor, p. 304. 
III. i. 221 "banished," iv. ii. 106 2J. Mantua ,., abotiUi]So^QT>M\iQf 

"buried," and the numerous cases v. li. 46, "toward Mantua, whither 

where " -tion " at the end of a line is they are fled." The report might have 

treated as two syllables. been spread by Valentine in departing, 

13. remorsefur\ pitiful. Macbeth^ I. in order to mislead ; in iv. i. 17 he 

V. 43, " Stop up the access and passage told the outlaws he was on his wa^ to 

to remorse, | That no compunctious Verona, a more probable destination, 

visitings of nature | Shake my fell pur- But "Mantua" is, perhaps, part of 

pose." the same confusion which has retained 

19. come so »^r] with sense of injury "Verona" in ill. i. 81 and v, iv. 126. 
or menace, as Hamlet , v. ii. 58, " near In Romeo and Juliet, which has so 
my conscience," and Romeo and Juliet, many links with our play, Mantua is 
I. V. 22, "am I come near you now?" the exile's refuge. See notes on 11. v. 

20, 21. thy lady . . . chastity'] The I and I v. i. Scene. 

vow may have been a public one, as 24. for] because, as il. iv. 175. 



86 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

To keep me from a most unholy match, 30 

Which heaven and fortune still rewards with plagues. 
. ' I do desire thee, even from a heart 

As full of sorrows as the sea of sands, 

To bear me company, and go with me : 

If not, to hide what I have said to thee, 3 5 

That I may venture to depart alone. 
E^. Madam, I pity much your grievances ; 

Which since I know they virtuously are placed, 

I give consent to go along with you ; 

Recking as little what betideth me 40 

As much I wish all good befortune you. 

When will you go ? 
Sil. This evening coming. 

E£^. Where shall I meet you ? 
Sil. At Friar Patrick's cell. 

Where I intend holy confession. 
Egl. I will not fail your ladyship. Good morrow, gentle 
lady. 45 

Sil. Good morrow, kind Sir Eglamour. \Exeunt severally. 



SCENE lY.— The Same. 

Enter Launce, with his Dog. 

Launce, When a man's servant shall play the cur with 
him, look you, it goes hard : one that I brought 
up of a puppy ; one that I saved from drowning, 
when three or four of his blind brothers and 

40. Recking] Pope, Wreaking Ff. 

Scene IV, 
The Same] The same, Silvia's Anti-chamber Capell. with his Dog] Pope. 

37. grievances] grieving thoughts, shall befortune, every hap," etc., is 

In III. ii. 86 "grievance" was used probably an archaism reminiscent of 

for lamentation. Between lines 37 and this passage. 
38 Collier's MS. corrector inserts a 

line, "And the most true affections Scene iv, 

that they bear." 3. of a puppy] when a puppy, during 

41. ^4/5v/««^] only here, for "befall," his puppyhood. Cf. Taming, Induc- 
" bechance." The smgle other instance, tion, 80, "of all that time," and ii. i. 
quoted New Eng, Diet, from Single- 122, "of her widowhood." 

ton's Virgilt n. 51 (1855), "Whatever 



SC. IV.] 



OF VERONA 



87 



/ 



sisters went to it ! I have taught him — even as 5 
one would say, " precisely thus I would teach a 
dog." I was sent to deliver him as a present to 
Mistress Silvia from my master ; and I came no 
sooner into the dining-chamber, but he steps me 
to her trencher, and steals her capon's leg: O, 10 
'tis a foul thing when a cur cannot keep himself 
in all companies ! I would have, as one should 
say, one that takes upon him to be a dog indeed, 
to be, as it were, a dog at all things. If I had 
not had more wit than he, to take a fault upon 1 5 
me that he did, I think verily he had been hang'd 
for 't ; sure as I live, he had suffered for *t : you 
/^ shall judge. He thrusts me himself into the 
company of three or four gentlemanlike dogs, 
under the Duke's table : he had not been there 20 
— bless the mark — a pissing while, but all the 



5-7. ezfen . . . flS?^"] {euen , 
precisely i Thus . . . d^^Reed. 

5. weni to jV] phrase for going to 
one's death; Hamlet ^ v. ii. 56, **So 
Guildenstem and Rosencrantz go t' it " 
(of their impending death). 

5-7. even , . . dog*^'\ I have emended 
the Folio by shifting the comma from 
"precisely" to "say," leaving the 
sense " all would say the teaching was 
just what it should be." Were this 
rejected, I should prefer to take 
" precisely," etc., as meaning, " I have 
taught him the most precise manners : 
so I think dogs should be taught." 

7. was sent] Theobald's correction 
" went" is needlessly literal. 

9. me] as lines 18, 26 ; this equivalent 
of the Latin Ethic Dative has been 
noted to weariness, e,g. Taming^ I. ii. 
II, " knock me at this gate." 

10. trencher] of wood, as customary. 
Knight quotes a payment made for 
" trenchors for the king " in 1530. 

11. keep himself] restrain himself. 

13. to be a dog indeed] Johnson 
proposed to repeat "to be a dog" 
before "indeed." 

14. a dog at all things] " well- versed 
in all things," Schmidt, comparing 
Twelfth Night, 11. iii 64, " I am dog 
at a catch. Halliwell adds Lodge's 



, precisely i thus , , . dog) Ff ; even . . . 



Wits Miserie, 1596, p. 33, "he is a 
dog at recognisances and statutes." 

21. bless the mark] Cf. "save the 
mark," an expression which Brewer's 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ^ p. 790, 
refers to archery, i.e. a wish that a 
well-placed arrow may not be displaced 
by a later. Considering the use of 
either, as here, as apology to preface 
some strong phrase, they seem better 
explained as originally an ejaculatory 
invocation of the Cross, familiar as a 
mark on coins and elsewhere ; and so 
of similiar intent and effect as cross- 
ing oneself. Cf. the similar use of 
" surreverence," i.e, salvS reverenti&, 
e,g, Beaumont and Fletcher, Humour- 
ous Lieutenant, I v. i. 102, " Surrever- 
ence, Love ! " where Celia knows that 
"lust" is the proper term. Mr. Hart 
on Othello, I. i. 33 (Arden Shakespeare), 
quotes Beaumont and Fletcher, The 
Noble Gentleman, IV. iv., "God bless 
the mark and every good man's child," 
and considers it as originally meant 
to avert Nemesis after praismg any- 
thing. 

21. a pissing while] Halliwell quotes 
"But a pyssyngewhyle, tant quon 
auroyt pissi^ or ce pendent ^^ Palsgrave, 



88 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

chamber smelt him. " Out with the dog ! " says 
one : " What cur is that ? " says another : " Wtdp 
him out," says the third : " Hang him up," says 
the Duke. I, having been acquainted with the 25 
smell before, knew it was Crab, and goes me to 
the fellow that whips the dogs : " Friend," quoth I, 
" you mean to whip the dog ? " " Ay, marry, do 
I," quoth he. " You do him the more wrong," 
quoth I ; " 'twas I did the thing you wot of." He 30 
makes me no more ado, but whips me out of the 
chamber. How many masters would do this for 
\ his servant ? Nay, I '11 be sworn, I have sat in 
the stocks for puddings he hath stolen, otherwise 
he had been executed ; I have stood on the pillory 3 5 
for geese he hath killed, otherwise he had suffered 
for't. Thou think'st not of this now. Nay, I 
, remember the trick you served me when I took 
my leave of Madam Silvia : did not I bid thee 
still mark me, and do as I do ? when didst thou 40 
see me heave up my leg, and make water against 
a gentlewoman's farthingale ? didst thou ever see 
me do such a trick ? 

EnUr Proteus and Julia. 
Pro. Sebastian is thy name ? I like thee well, 

33. hi5\ their Pope. 43. Enter P. and J.] Rowe. 

1530 ; again in Jonson's Magnetic Lady one of the points in which he parodies 

[I. i. end], Steevens. the serious action ; cf. line 95, below, 

27. fellow that whips the dogs] " How many women would do such a 

Steevens illustrated the office from message?" 

Mucedorus, 1598, ** Clown, Marry, sir, 34. puddings'] guts of an animal. 

I am a rusher of the stable. Muc, Johnson's Zfutionary quotes Merry 

O, usher of the table. Clown. Nay, I Wives ^ 11. L, "as sure as his guts are 

say rusher, and I'll prove my office made of puddings," and i^^/^ K. n.L, 

good. For look, sir, wiien ... a dog " yield the crow a pudding." 

chance to blow his nose backward, 35. the pillory] stocks raised on a 

then with a whip I give him the good postabout the height of the human figure, 

time of the day, and straw rushes with apertures for the head and both 

presently " {^Dodshy^ vii. 240). Halli- the hands. 

well mentions a piece of laiid called 39. Silvia] Warburton needlessly 

Dogwhipper's Marsh at Chislet in corrected to " Julia." The occasion is 

Kent. that referred to above, lines 7-9. 

30. wot] know. 44. Sebastian] The name is one of 

32. Howmany masters, etc. ]'LAyxTict*s Julia's links with Viola, whose brother 

self-sacrificing devotion to lus dog is bears it in Twelfth Night, 



sciv.] OF VERONA 89 

And will employ thee in some service presently. 45 
Jul. In what you please : I 'II do what I can. 
Pro. I hope thou wilt. \To Launce.] How now, you whore- 
son peasant ! 

Where have you been these two days loitering ? 
Launce. Marry, sir, I carried Mistress Silvia the dog 

you bade me. 50 

Pro. And what says she to my little jewel ? 
Launce. Marry, she says your dog was a cur, and tells 

you currish thanks is good enough for such a 

present. 
Pro. But she received my dog? 55 

Launce. No, indeed, did she not : here have I brought 

him back again. 
Pro. What, didst thou offer her this from me ? 
Launce. Ay, sir; the other squirrel was stolen from 

me by the hangman boys in the market-place : 60 

and then I offer'd her mine own, who is a dog 

as big as ten of yours, and therefore the gift the 

greater. 
Pro. Go get thee hence, and find my dog again, 

Or ne'er return again into my sight. 6$ 

Away, I say ! stay*st thou to vex me here ? 

[Exit Launce. 

A slave, that still an end turns me to shame ! 

46. do\ doe Sir Ff 2-4. 47. [To Launce. ] Johnson. 59-63. ] Prose, Pope ; 
verse Ff. 60. hangman days] Singer, Hangmans boyes F I, Ilangmans boy 
Ff 2-4. 66. Exit Launce] Rowe, omitted F i. 

45. presently] at once, as ni. i. 42. tion must be right, but the epithet 

59. squirrel] Launce's contemptuous means not ''bad as a hangman, but 
epithet (cf. line 62) is no doubt "fit for the hangman," like ''wag- 
suggested by the fact that squirrels halter," "halter-sack"; and a similar 
were actually carried about by ladies, meaning may even attend the use as 
Cf. Lyl/s Endimiont n. ii. 137, substantive quoted by Mr. Craig from 
" What is that the gentlewoman carrieth Wilson's Art of Rhetoric, 1 580, p. 123, 
in a chalne? Epi. Why it is a "Amplification: to call a naughtie 
Squirrill," on which Fairholt notes that fellow theefe or hangman, when hee is 
the tapestry found in Charles the Bold's not knowne to be any such." 

tent at Nancy, 1476, exhibits a lady 67. an end] on end, to the end, 

seated with a squirrel secured to her continuously; still surviving in such 

wrist by a chain. — Proteus' intended phrases as that quoted New Eng, Diet. 

present would be one of the little from Richardson's Clarissa, vii. 220, 

Maltese lap-dogs then fashionable ; see " [He] would ride an hundred miles an 

note on in. i. 271. end to enjoy it." Staunton quotes 

60. hangman boys] Singer's emenda- Cartwrights Ordinary ^ "shakings still 



90 



THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 



Sebastian, I have entertained thee, 
Partly that I have need of such a youth, 
That can with some discretion do my business, 
For 'tis no trusting to yond foolish lout ; 
But chiefly for thy face and thy behaviour. 
Which, if my augury deceive me not, 
Witness good bringfing up, fortune, and truth : 
Therefore know thou, for this I entertain thee. 
Go presently, and take this ring with thee, 
Deliver it to Madam Silvia : 
She loved me well delivered it to me. 
JuL It seems you loved not her, to leave her token. 



70 



75 



75. th<m\ Ff 2-4, theeYi. 79. to\ Ff 2-4, not¥i. 



an end." In Holland's translation of 
PltUarchU Morals^ 1603 (ed. 1657, 
p. 163), I find, ** Now when the maiden 
thereupon asked her, what news? she 
set tale an end, and told all," i.e, 
began a continuous account and finished 
it. 

68. I have entertain^ thee'\ Pursuant 
on her questions to the Host, iv. ii. 
31* 76* Julia has offered her services to 
Proteus as page. In Montemayor, 
Don Felix* present page Fabius, a 
much smarter, more conventional 
creature than Launce, has been ''com- 
manded to seeke him out a Page . . . 
In the end Fabius spake to his master, 
Don Felix, as soone as he was come 
foorth, in my behalfe, who commanded 
me the same night to come to him at 
his lodjging. Thither I went, and he 
entertained me for his Page, making 
the most of me in the worlde ; where, 
being but a few daies with him, I sawe 
the messages, letters and gifts that were 
brought and caried on both sides, 
greeuous wounds alas ! and corsives to 
my dying hart . . . But after one 
moneth was past, Don Felix began to 
like so well of me, that he disclosed his 
whole loue vnto me, from the beginning 
vnto the present estate and forwardnes 
that it was then in, committing the 
charge thereof to my secrecie and helpe ; 
telling me that he was fauored of her at 
the beginning, and that afterward she 
waxed wearie of her louing and 
accustomed entertainment, the cause 
whereof was a secret report (whosoeuer 



it was that buzzed it into her eares) of 
the loue that he did beare to a Lady in 
his owne countrey . . . And there is 
no doubt (saide Don Felix vnto me) 
but that, indeede, I did once commence 
that loue that she laies to my charge ; 
but God knowes if now there be any 
thing in the world that I loue and 
esteeme more deere and precious then 
her. When I heard him say so, you 
may imagine (faire N3rmphes) what a 
mortall dagger pierced my wounded 
heart. But with dissembling the matter 
the best I coulde, I answered him thus : 
It were better, sir (me thinkes), that 
the Gentlewoman should complaine 
with cause, and that it were so indeed ; 
for if the other Ladie, whom you serued 
before, did not deserue to be forgotten 
of you, you do her (vnder correction, 
my Lord) the greatest wrong in the 
world. The loue (said Don Felix 
againe) which I beare to my Celia will 
not let me vnderstand it so ; but I haue 
done her (me thinkes) the greater 
iniurie, hauing placed my loue first in 
an other, and not in her. Of these 
wrongs (saide I to my selfe) I know who 
beares the woorst away " (pp. 293, 294). 

78. delivet^d\ i,e, who deliver'd, 
ellipse of relative, more common when 
the relative is in the objective case. 
Again, v. iv. 15. 

79. leave\ part with ; as of the ring 
in Merchant of Venice^ v. i. 172, "I 
dare be sworn for him he would not 
leave it " (Marshall). For " to leave " 
Johnson proposed " nor love." 



\ ... . K^ 
sciv.] OF VERONA 91 

She is dead, belike ? 
Pro. Not so ; I think she lives. 80 

>/. Alas! 

Pro. Why dost thou cry, " alas " ? 
/«/, I cannot choose 

But pity her. 
Pro. Wherefore shouldst thou pity her ? 

/«/. Because methinks that she loved you as well 

As you do love your lady Silvia: 8$ 

She dreams on him that has forgot her love ; 

You dote on her that cares not for your love. 

'Tis pity love should be so contrary ; 

And thinking on it makes me cry, " alas ! " 
Pro. Well, give her that ring, and therewithal 90 

This letter. That 's her chamber. Tell my lady 

I claim the promi^ for her heavenly picture. 

Your message done, hie home unto my chamber, 

Where thou shalt find me, sad and solitary. [Exit. 

Jul. How many women would do such a message? 95 

Alas, poor Proteus ! thou hast entertained 

82, 83. I cannot . . . Aer,] as one line Ff. 84. thcU she loved] if she loves 

Hanmer. 90. and therewithal] and give therewithal Pope. 94. Exit] 

omitted F I. 

80. She is dead, belike?] referring to can perswade me that it hath beene 

Proteus* own statement, overheard by loue (p. 297). 

her, IV. ii. 104 (Steevens). 86-88. She dreams . . . so contrary] 

82, 83. / cannot choose \ But pity So with Helena, Demetrius, and Hermia 

her.] TTie page's pleading is more out- in Midsummer'Nighf s Dreamy and 

spoken and persistent in the tale: "If compare Viola, Orsino, and Olivia in 

thy griefe doth suffer any counsell, Twelfth Night, 

saide I, that thy thoughts be diuided 91. That^s her chamber] Smce the 

into this second passion, since there is beginnii^ of scene ii. we have been 

so much due to the first. Don Felix under Silvia's window, outside the 

answered me againe, sighing, and palace. Continuity of scene within the 

knocking me gently on the shoulder, limits of an Act would be more desir- 

sa3dng, How wise art thou, Valerius, able in the absence of scenery; and 

and what good counsell thou dost giue Lyly, Shakespeare's model in tlus play, 

me if I could follow it" (p. 295). " I usually preserves it, though sometimes 

thinke, Sir, it is needlesse to amende changmg the locale abruptly in the 

this letter, or to make the Gentlewoman course of a scene. Cf. Essay, Works , 

amendes, to whom it is sent, but her, ii. 269. Considering the jealous watch 

whom you do iniure so much with it " on Silvia, III. i. 235, we must, I think, 

(p. 296). " Thus may she thmke her regard Julia's following soliloquy as 

selfe (saide I againe) vniustly deceiued, covering just such an imaginary transi- 

whom first you loued, because that loue tion to Silvia's chamber ; cf. line 122, 

which is subiect to the power of ab- ** bring my picture there," which at iv. 

sence cannot be termed loue, and none ii. 120 was " hanging in your chamber." 



92 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

A fox to be the shepherd of thy lambs. 

Alas, poor fool ! why do I pity him 

That with his very heart despiseth me ? 

Because he loves her, he despiseth me ; lOO 

Because I love him, I must pity him. 

This ring I gave him when he parted from me, 

To bind him to remember my good will ; 

And now am I, unhappy messenger. 

To plead for that which I would not obtain, 105 

To carry that which I would have refused. 

To praise his faith which I would have dispraised. 

I am my master's true-confirmed love ; 

But cannot be true servant to my master, 

Unless I prove false traitor to myself. no 

Yet will I woo for him, but yet so coldly, 

As, heaven it knows, I would not have him speed. 

Enter SiLViA, attended. 

Gentlewoman, good day ! I pray you, be my mean 
To bring me where to speak with Madam Silvia. 
Sil. What would you with her, if that I be she ? 115 

JuL If you be she, I do entreat your patience 

To hear me speak the message I am sent on. 
Sil. From whom? 

112. Enter S. attended] Malone ; Enter Silvia Ff 2-4 ; omitted F i. 

98. poor fool!] of course in self-pity, mine owne content." The ensuing in- 

98. pily hitn] In Montemayor, p. 298, terview in Montemayor has been more 

Felismena tells Celia that she has pitied faithfully followed oy Shakespeare in 

Felix' '' paines, teares, sighes, and those between Viola and Olivia than in 

continuall disquiet." this play. Julia confines herself to a 

106, 107. would have] wish to have, bare delivery of message, letter, and 

as line 105, *' would not" ring, and cannot bring herself to plead 

111,112. Yet Willi woo for him y etc] for her master as do Felismena and 

Compare Viola, Tkvelfih Nighty I. iv. Viola. Here, too, the pre-engagement 

39, "I'll do my best | To woo your of Silvia's affection debars the poet from 

lady : [Aside] Yet, a barful strife ! I reproducing in her Celia's evident pre- 

Whoe'er I woo, myself would be his dilection for the messenger, e,^. p. 298 : 

wife." This soliloquy is suggested by " There is not anie thing (saide Celia) 

the following in Yonge, p. 297 : ** But that I would not do for diee, though I 

taking the letter and mme errant with were determined not to loue him at all, 

me, I went to Celia's house, imagining who for my sake hath forsaken an- 

by the way the wofuU estate whereunto other " — though of course he gives it 

my haplesse loue had brought me ; full development in Twelfth Night, 

since I was forced to make warre 113. mean] as in. i. 38, note. For 

against mine owne selfe, and to be the the contraction of " GenUewoman," see 

intercessour of a thing so contrarie to note on line 185. 



sciv.] OF VERONA 93 

JuL From my master, Sir Proteus, madam. 

SU. O, he sends you for a picture. 120 

JuL Ay, madam. 

SU. Ursula, bring my picture there. 

Go give your master this : tell him, from me, 
One Julia, that his changing thoughts forget^ 
Would better fit his chamber than this shadow. 125 

Jul. Madam, please you peruse this letter. — 
Pardon me, madam ; I have unadvised 
Delivered you a paper that I should not : 
This is the letter to your ladyship. 

Sil. I pray thee, let me look on that again. 130 

JuL It may not be ; good madam, pardon me. 

SU. There, hold ! 

I will not look upon your master's lines : 

I know they are stuff'd with protestations. 

And full of new-found oaths ; which he will break 135 

As easily as I do tear his paper. 

JuL Madam, he sends your ladyship this ring. 

SU. The more shame for him that he sends it me ; 
For I have heard him say a thousand times 
His Julia gave it him at his departure. 140 

Though his false finger have profaned the ring. 
Mine shall not do his Julia so much wrong. 

JuL She thanks you. 

124. forg^ forgot Ff 3, 4. 

125. shadcw\ portrait, as iv. ii. would suggest that in the glimpse 
124. afforded she recognises Proteur hand- 

126. pUtise vou] Pope read " May't writing and suspects him of writing to 
please you to " ; Marshall " if 't please some other woman at the same time as 
you, to," supposing "if't" to have herself. 

been lost by confusion with "fit" in 132. There, hold/} relinquishing 

the line above ; but " to " is also miss- Julia's, not that addressed to herself, 

ing, and I think it wiser as a rule to which she tears up, line 136. 

decline, with the Camb. Editors, the 135. new-found oat As] The affected 

very easy but very disputable attempt fashion, more Arcadian than Euphuistic, 

to pad defective lines. is illustrated in Twelfth Nighty iii. i. 

127. unadvised] unthinkingly; cf. 95, "Fw. Most excellent and accom- 
" Upon advice," on reflection, ni. i. plished lady, the heavens rain odours 
73. on you! Sir And, That youth's a 

128. fl paper that I should not] i.e. rare courtier : * Rain odours.' ; well." 
one of Proteus' former letters to herself. Compare the lesson Amorphus gives to 
If it be necessary to find a motive for Asotus in Jonson's Cynihit^s Revels, 
Silvia's request to see it (line 130), I hi. iii. 



94 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

Sil. What sa/st thou ? 

Jul. I thank you, madam, that you tender her. 145 

Poor gentlewoman ! my master wrongs her much. 

SU. Dost thou know her ? 

Jul. Almost as well as I do know myself: 
To think upon her woes I do protest 
That I have wept a hundred several times. 150 

Sil. Belike she thinks that Proteus hath forsook her. 

Jul. I think she doth ; and that 's her cause of sorrow. 

Sil. Is she not passing fair? 

Jul. She hath been fairer, madam, than she is : 

When she did think my master loved her well, 155 

She, in my judgment, was as fair as you ; 

But since she did neglect her looking-glass. 

And threw her sun-expelling mask away, 

The air hath starved the roses in her cheeks. 

And pinch'd the lily-tincture of her face, 1 60 

That now she is become as black as I. 

Sil. How tall was she? 

Jul. About my stature : for, at Pentecost, 

145. tencUr] have thought for, regard ; 158. sun-expelling rnctsk] Rolfe quotes 

as Hamlet^ I. iii. 107, " Tender your- Troilus and Cressula, i. ii. 286, " my 

self more dearly." mask, to defend my beauty " ; Cymbe- 

147 sgg. Dost thou know her? etc.] line, v. iii. 21, "With faces fit for 

The following is the only further resem- masks, or rather fairer | Than those 

blance to this interview in Montemayor's for preservation cased, or shame.*' 

talk : " Doest thou then know Felis- Stubbes, quoted by Halliwell, saj^ that 

. mena (saide Celia), the lady whom thy when ladies " use to ride abroad they 

Master did once loue and seme in his have masks and visors made of velvet, 

owne countrey ? I know her (saide I), wherewith they cover all their faces " 

although not so well as it was needfull etc. Others were cut so as to cover 

for me to haue preuented so many mis- brow, eyes, and nose only, 

haps (and this I spake softly to my 160, 161. pinched . . . black] i.e. sun- 

selfe). For my fathers house was neere burnt from exposure, with allusion to 

to hers . . . Celia began in good earnest the natural effect of pinching. So 

to ask me what manner of woman Cleopatra, with less exaggeration, " me 

Felismena was, whom I answered, that. That am with Phoebus' amorous pinches 

touching her beautie, some thought her black," Antottyand Cleopatra^ i. v. 28, 

to be veiy faire; but I was neuer of quoted by Steevens. Cf. v. ii. 10, 

that opinion, bicause she hath many Thurio, accused of being fair-faced, 

dales smce wanted the chiefest thing that protests **my face is black." For 

is requisite for it. What is that ? saide ** pinch'd " Warburton read ** pitch'd," 

Celia. Content of minde, saide I, blackened. 

bicause perfect beautie can neuer be, 160. tincture] Again, Winters Tale, 

where the same is not adio)aied to it " in. ii. 206, and Cymbeline, 11. ii. 23, 

— 2i. proposition which Celia disputes. " laced | With blue of heaven's own 

There is no hint for the Pentecost tinct." 

pageants. 163, 164. at Pentecost . . . pageants^ 



SC. IV.] 



OF VERONA 



95 



When all our pageants of delight were pla/d, 

Our youth got me to play the woman's part, 165 

And I was trimm'd in Madam Julia's gown ; 

Which served me as fit, by all men's judgments, 

As if the garment had been made for me : 

Therefore I know she is about my height. 

And at that time I made her weep agood, 1 70 

For I did play a lamentable part : 

Madam, 'twas Ariadne passioning 

For Theseus' perjury and unjust flight ; 

Which I so lively acted with my tears, \ 



170. agvod] Ff 2-4, a good F I. 

eicJ] Secular and classical pieces, as 
here, would be given on the same 
religious festivals as had su^ested their 
predecessors, the mysteries and miracle- 
plays, the reminiscence of which is 
retained in " pageants/' The Chester 
Plays were held at Whitsuntide ; their 
last revival was in 1600, though the 
Beverley Plays were acted till 1604 
(Pollard's English Miracle Flays, p. 
lix). 

165. the womatCs parf] One of the 
many evidences that women were dis- 
allowed on the stage, a disability that 
made it more natuiul and easy for 
Shakespeare to disguise his heroines in 
male dress. In Midsummer - Nigh fs 
Dream Thisbe is played by Francis 
Flute the bellows-mender. Antony and 
Cleopatra, v. ii. 219, is usually quoted 
in this connection : "the quick comedi- 
ans I Extemporally will stage us . . . 
and I shall see | Some squeaking Cleo- 
patra boy my greatness." Cf. Rosalind 
in the Epilogue to As You Like It, " If 
I were a woman." 

166. trimm*d'\ dressed up, as Sonnet 
66, " needy nothing trimm'a in jollity," 
always with the notion of disguise or 
dress for special occasion. 

166. Madam JulicC s gown\ Ariadne's 
costume being contemporary, not classi- 
cal. We may suppose Julia to have actu- 
ally lent the gown and been moved by 
the piece ; and lines 1 76, 1 77 to have the 
same dramatic point as "black as I," 
line i6i. 

167. served me asfif] Mr. Craig well 
compares Cymbeline, iv. i. 2, " How 
fit his garments serve me ! " and 



in Euterpe (Bk. II.) . . of Herodotus 
Englished by B, R,, 1584 (of Rhamp- 
sanitus' treasure-chamber, c. 121), a 
movable stone " which notwithstanding 
serued so fittingly {i.e. was such an 
exact fit) to the place, that nothing 
could be discerned. 

170. agood^ Ft, ''tout de hon?' 
Steevens, aptly quoting Turberville's 
transl. of Ovid's Epistle x. (Ariadne 
to Theseus), " beating of my breast a- 
good"; and Malone adds Marlowe's 
Jew of Malta [11. iii. 214], "That I 
nave laugh'd a-good." 

171. lamentable'] The active and causa- 
tive senses are both present, as perhaps 
in the "lamentable comedy" ol Mid- 
summer - Night' s Dream, I. ii. 11. 
Schmidt quotes in the former "that 
lamentable rheum," King John, in. 

i. 22. 

172,1 73. Ariadne . . . Theseus'^The, 
story is not in the Metamorphoses ; see 
note on line 170. Mr. Fleay, recapitu- 
lating links between this play and 
Midsummer-Night* s Dream (cf. ii. i. 
80 of that play), refers us to Chaucer's 
Knightes Tale {Chron, Life of Shak- 
speare, p. 191). 

172. passioning] passionately grieving 
or lamenting. , Schmidt gives Tempest, 
V. i. 24, " Shall not myself, that relish 
all as sharply, | Passion as they, be 
kindlier moved than thou art?" and 
Venus and Adonis, 1059, "dumbly she 
passions." The substantive is found in 
Lodge's Rosalynd {Shakespeare Library, 
I* ii* 33)> "Rosalynd's passion," i,e, 
moving complaint, or expression of her 



96 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [activ. 

That my poor mistress, moved therewithal, 175 

Wept bitterly ; and, would I might be dead, 
If I in thought felt not her very sorrow ! 

Si/. She is beholding to thee, gentle youth. 
Alas, poor lady, desolate and left ! 
I weep myself to think upon thy words. 1 80 

Here, youth, there is my purse : I give thee this 
For thy sweet mistress* sake, because thou lovest her. 
Farewell. [Exit Si/via, with attendants. 

Jul. And she shall thank you for 't, if e'er you know her. 
A virtuous gentlewoman, mild and beautiful 1 185 

I hope my master's suit will be but cold. 
Since she respects my mistress' love so much. 
Alas, how love can trifle with itself! 
Here is her picture : let me see ; I think, 
If I had such a tire, this face of mine 190 

Were full as lovely as is this of hers : 
And yet the painter flatter'd her a little, 
Unless I flatter with myself too much. 
Her hair is auburn, mine is perfect yellow : 
If that be all the difference in his love, 195 

I '11 get me such a colour'd periwig. 

181. my\ Fi,aFf2-4. 183. ExitSilv ] Dyce; Exit Ff 3-4; omitted 

F I. 194. aubum'\ Rowe, Abume IPi. 

178. beholding] or beholden, fre- haps has reference to this playfulness, 

quent; cf. Taming j ii. i. 78, ''that or to the ingenious invention she has 

have been more kindly beholding to just mdulged in. 

you than any." 190. tire] head-dress, rather than 

185. gentlewoman] as at line 113, an way of dressing the hair. Antony and 
extreme instance of contraction in pro- Cleopatra^ 11. v. 22, "put my tires and 
nunciation, by which two syllables dis- mantles upon him." 

appear or stand as superfluous. The 194. auburn] " Light aubome, sub- 

word is generally made a trisyllable, as Jlavus" Baret, 1580; auburn is ^'/n'lfMf 

Herford noted on line 146, above. — But in Prompt, Parv. (Halliwell). 

cf. V. ii. 50. 1 94. /^f^^rf^'^iZiw] The natural colour 

186. suit . . . cold] Cf. Merchant of Queen Elizabeth's, and so the feshion- 
of Venice^ ii. vii. 73, " Fare you well : able colour in her time. Cf. Lyly's 
your suit is cold." Schmidt interprets Campaspe^ ill. iv. 90, "Then had men 
as indifferent, unwelcome; I should fewer fancies, & women not so many 
rather explain as neglected, forsaken, fauors. For now, if the haire of her 
not of warm or general interest ; or eie browes be black, yet must the haire 
associate it with the expressions, " cold of her head be yellowe " ; and Merchant 
scent," "cold fault," implying distance of Venice^ ill. ii. 92, "those . . . golden 
from the true mark. locks . . . often known | To be the 

187. my mistress* love] in playful dowry of a second head." C£ line 196. 
repetition of the fiction of line 175, and 196. periwig] " first introduced into 



cf. 182; the following Ime (188) per- England about 1572 " (Staunton). 



sc.iv.] OF VERONA 97 

Her eyes are grey as glass ; and so are mine : 
Ay, but her forehead 's low, and mine 's as high. 
What should it be that he respects in her, 
But I can make respective in myself, 200 

If this fond Love were not a blinded god ? 
Come, shadow, come, and take this shadow up. 
For 'tis thy rival. O thou senseless form. 
Thou shalt be worshipp'd, kiss'd, loved, and adored ! 
And, were there sense in his idolatry, 205 

My substance should be statue in thy stead. 
I '11 use thee kindly for thy mistress' sake. 
That used me so ; or else, by Jove I vow, 
I should have scratch'd out your unseeing eyes. 
To make my master out of love with thee ! 210 

[Exit. 



ACT V 

SCENE l.—MUan. An Abbey. 

Enter Eglamour. 

Egl. The sun begfins to gild the western sky ; 
And now it is about the very hour 
That Silvia, at Friar Patrick's cell, should meet me. 

197. gla5s\ F I, ^asse Ff 2-4. 206. 5tattu\ Yi^ sainted Hanmer. 210. 
Exit] Exeunt F i. 

Act V. Scene /. 
An Abbey] Capell. 

197* grey cls gUis5\ i.e, blue, says 202. icike . . . up"] with play on 

Malone, for Coles' Lot, Diet,, 1679, sense of hostile action or attitude, 

renders "blue" (eye) by ceruleus, 206. stattu] Monck Mason cited 

glaucus; but I doubt the inference. Massinger'sCt(^^d^af», v. iii., "crave 

Theobald quoted Chaucer's Prologue, . . . they may take leave | Of their 

152 (of the Prioress), "hir eyen greye late suitors' statues. Luke. There they 

as glas." hang,** to show that statue sometimes 

200. respective] such as to inspire meant picture; but the allusion here 
like resi)ect. The only parallel Schmidt is of course to the " idolatry " of image- 
quotes is Troilus and Cressida, 11. ii. worship. — Warburton read "statued," 
71, "the remainder viands we do not i,e, placed aloft or enshrined, 
throw in unrespective sieve." Halli- a * 77 q 
well mterprets " that I can make com- ^^^ '^' ^^^^ ^' 
parison oL" 3. That. . . Pie] I scan "That Sil | via 

202. shadow . . . shadow] See on at] Friar Pat | rick's cell | should meet 

IV. ii. 123, 124. me," and see no need to omit "That" 



98 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actv. 

She will not fail, for lovers break not hours, 
Unless it be to come before their time ; 5 

So much they spur their expedition. 
See where she comes. 

Enter SiLVlA. 

Lady, a happy evening ! 
Sil. Amen, amen ! Go on, good Eglamour, 

Out at the postern by the abbey-wall : 

I fear I am attended by some spies. 10 

Egl. Fear not : the forest is not three leagues off; 

If we recover that, we are sure enough. \ExeunU 



SCENE II.— The Same. The Duk^s Palace. 

Enter Thurio, Proteus, and Julia. 

Thu. Sir Proteus, what says Silvia to my suit ? 
Pro. O, sir, I find her milder than she was ; 

And yet she takes exceptions at your person. 
Thu. What, that my leg is too long ? 

Pro. No ; that it is too little. 5 

Thu. I '11 wear a boot, to make it somewhat rounder. 

7. Enter Silvia] before line i Ff. 

Scene li. 
. . . Palace] Theobald. 

with Pope, or "friar" with Steevens. KnoUes* ffist. of Turkes, ed. 1621, 

But see on v. ii. 50. This short scene p. 39a. 

is one of the many links with Romeo 12. sure^ the same word as 

and Juliet; cf. Introduction. "secure." 

4. lovers break not hours, etc] So „ 

RosaUnd, As You Like It, iv. i. 40, ^^^^ "' 

"Break an hour's promise in love! I. Thu. Sir Proteus, etc] This talk 

. . . break but a part of the thousandth between the royal favourite and the 

part of a minute, etc. flatterer, with caustic obbligato by Julia, 

9. postern] small private gate, from anticipates that between Cloten and the 

O.F. poster le, or posteme from two Lords in Cymbeline, I. ii., ii. i., 

Lat. posterula, "small back door" with the difference that Proteus is 

(Skeat). palpably amusing himself at Thurio's 

12. recover] reach, as in Tempest, expense. Cf. Sir Toby's handling of 

III. ii. 16, "I swam, ere I could recover the rich noodle Sir Andrew in Twelfth 

the shore, five and thirty leagues" Night, i. iii. 

(Schmidt). This sense of "gaining" 3. takes exceptions] makes objections 

is originally legal. The New Eng, to, as I. iii. 8i, ii. iv. 155. 

Diet, gives "having recovered the 6. ^£w/] riding-boot; hence "spurr'd," 

top of an hill, there they staled," line 7. 



sen.] OF VERONA 99 

Jul. [Aside.] But love will not be spurr'd to what it loathes. 
TAu. What says she to my face ? 
Pro. She says it is a fair one. 

TAu. Nay then, the wanton lies; my face is black. lo 

Pro. But pearls are fair ; and the old saying is, 

Black men are pearls in beauteous ladies* eyes. 
Jul. [Aside.] 'Tis true; such pearls as put out ladies' 
eyes; 

For I had rather wink than look on them. 
TAu. How likes she my discourse ? 15 

Pro. Ill, when you talk of war. 
TAu. But well, when I discourse of love and peace ? 
Jul. [Aside.] But better, indeed, when you hold your peace. 
TAu. What says she to my valour ? 

Pro. O, sir, she makes no doubt of that 20 

/«/. [Aside.] She needs not, when she knows it cowardice. 
TAu. What says she to my birth ? 
Pro. That you are well derived. 
Jul. [Aside.] True ; from a gentleman to a fool. 
TAu. Considers she my possessions? 25 

Pro. O, ay ; and pities them. 

7. Jul. [Aside.] Collier (Boswell conj.), Pro. Ff. 13. Jul. [Aside.] Rowe, 
Thu. Ff. 18, 21, 24, 28. [Aside.] Johnson. 

7. Jul.] Cf. lines 13, 18, 21, 24, 28. her eye"; and Malone, "A black man 

Did this line stand alone, it might have is a jewel in a fair woman's eye," from 

been assigned, as Ff, to Proteus, aside Ray's Proverbs. But Mr. Craig quotes 

if not aloud ; but Rowe's correction at the Elizabethan doctor, Vicary, '*a 

line 13 must be accepted (" 'Tis true " very good medicine for the pearl on the 

forbids our assigning the speech to eye" {i.e. cataract), and the proverb 

Proteus), and it is unlikely that this may originally have borne this un- 

line 7 should be the single exception. favourable sense, to which Julia prob- 

9. a fair one\ pale or fresh-com- ably alludes, line 13. 

plexioned, suggesting effeminacy, as 14. wink\ shut my eyes, as in '' wink 
Much Ado, III. 1. 61, "if fair-faced \ She at," be blind to. 
would swear the gentleman should be 16. ///, when you talk of war] The 
her sister." The sense of " tolerable " same reproach of effeminacy, which 
is not Elizabethan. Proteus invents an Thurio probably takes as feminine re- 
insult with contemptuous carelessness luctance to hear of blood and violence, 
of probability. 20. mahes no doubt of] (i) doesn't 

10. black] swarthy, as IV. iv. 161, question it, (2) (as Julia) faias long since 
" as black as I." perceived its true character. 

12. Black men are pearls , etc.] 23. derived] descended, which would 

Steevens quotes Heywood's Iron Age, make the hit clearer to modems. Cf. 

1632, " a black complexion | Is always v. iv. 143, "Thou art a gentleman, 

gracious in a woman's eye," and Sir and well dferived." 

Giles Goosecapf 1606, " but to make 26. pities them] i.e. despises, makes 

every black slovenly cloud a pearle in no account of, allows them no weight 



100 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actv. 

Thu. Wherefore? 

Jul. [Aside,] That such an ass should owe them. 
Pro. That they are out by lease. 
Ju/. Here comes the Duke. 30 

Enter DUKE. 

DuJte. How now, Sir Proteus ! how now, Thurio ! 
Which of you saw Sir Eglamour of late ? 

TAu. Not I. 

Pro. Nor I. 

Duke. Saw you my daughter ? 

Pro. Neither. 

Duie. Why then, she 's fled unto that peasant Valentine ; 
And Eglamour is in her company. 3 5 

'Tis true; for Friar Laurence. met them both, 
As he in penance wander'd through the forest ; 
Him he knew well, and guess'd that it was she, 
But, being mask'd, he was not sure of it ; 
Besides, she did intend confession 40 

At Patrick's cell this even ; and there she was not 
These likelihoods confirm her flight from hence ; 
Therefore, I pray you, stand not to discourse, 
But mount you presently, and meet with me 
Upon the rising of the mountain -foot 45 

That leads toward Mantua, whither they are fled : . ,^ 
Dispatch, sweet gentlemen, and follow me. [Exit. 

TAu. Why, this it is to be a peevish girl, 

32. saw Sir] F 4 ; saw F i; say saw Sir Ff 2, 3. 34. fVky then, sA^'s] 
Capell, fVhjf then^ She's (two lines) Ff. 47. Exit] Rowe. 

in love. I hardly think Proteus means 36. Friar Laurence] Another little 

to take possessions as mental gifts, as link with Romeo and Juliet. 

was suggested in Steevens* note. 37. iheforesf] i.e. that mentioned by 

28. tnve] own, as Tempest, ill. i. 45, Eglamour, v. i. 11, which is also that 
'* some defect in her | Did auarrel with of Valentine's retreat. See note on iv. 
the noblest grace she owed ; Measure i. Scene. 

for Measure, I. iv. 83, "All their 41. Mw«>^«] All the events of Act Y. 

petitions are as freely theirs | As they occupy but a few hours, 

themselves would owe them." 44. presently] at once, as III. i. 42, 

29. out by lease] and more likely to iv. iv. 45. 

suffer under another's guardianship. 46. Mantua] See note on iv. iii. 23. 

Proteus' explanation is carelessly lame. 48. peevish] foolish. In Eupkues, 

34. peasant] Cf. ill. i. 157, 158. ii. 42, Ime I, " fond youth " of courtly 

With the two superfluous syllables at ambitions are compared to " y* foolisn 

the end of this line, cf. line 50, note. Eagle y^ coueteth to build her nest in 



sc.m.] OF VERONA 101 

That flies her fortune when it follows her. ^^ 

I '11 after, more to be revenged on Eglamour 50 

Than for the love of reckless Silvia. \ExiU 

Pro. And I will follow, more for Silvia's love 

Than hate of Eglamour, that goes with her. {Exit. 

Jul. And I will follow, more to cross that love 

Than hate for Silvia, that is gone for love. \Exit. 5 S 



SCENE \\\.— The Forest. 

Enter Outlaws with Silvia. 

First Out. Come, come, 

Be patient; we must bring you to our captain. 
Sil. A thousand more mischances than this one 

Have leam'd me how to brook this patiently. 
Sec. Out. Come, bring her away. 5 

First Out. Where is the gentleman that was with her ? 
Third Out. Being nimble-footed, he hath outrun us. 

But Moses and Valerius follow him. 

51, S3, 55. Exit] Capell; Ff merely Exeunt at end. 

Seme III. 

The Forest] Pope, The frontiers of Mantua. Capell. 8. Mo5es\ Capell, 

Moyses Ff. 

y« sun . . . But as y« Eagle, bumeth „ 

out hir eyes w* that proud lust : so doth ^^^^^ ^^^* 

youth break his hart with y^ peeuish 4. learned] taught, as ii. vi. 13. 

conceit.'' Cf. EuphueSy I. 321, line 26, 6. the gentleman^ eU,] i.e. Eglamour; 

"peeuishnesse causeth them ... to cf. v. ii. 35-37. Marshall may be 

forgo their sences." right in regarding this marked falsifica- 

50.] Two superfluous syllables are tion of Silvia's trust in him (i v. iii. 13, 
allowed here at the end of the line, 26) as among the signs of haste in 
exactly as at line 34 above, a licence winding up the play, which made the 
Shakespeare seldom takes at this date poet careless how he got rid of his 
save with a proper name (cf. I. ii. 1 10, characters. But the failure of a well- 
" Julia"; andii. iv. 84, 117, "Thurio," intentioned man in a case of sudden 
and IV. ii. 16, interior of a line ; and surprise is not uncommon, and Silvia 
line 34 (above), "Valentine"), or on need not be an infallible judge of char- 
some principle of contraction, as "lady- acter. See I. ii. 9, 10, note, 
ship," II. iv. 105. But cf. "infency," 8. Moses and Falerius] "Moyses" 
II. IV. 62. Cf.Introduction, p. xiv,note. of Ff is merely the alternative Latin 

55. TAan hate for ^ etc] The form of form of " Moses," a transliteration of 

line 53 is repeated, in disregard of the the LXX form Mwt/enjf. It may be 

fact that the new construction adopted seen on a sixth century mosaio of the 

in line 54 does not properly allow it. Transfiguration in the dome of the 



102 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [act v. 

Go thou with her to the west end of the wood ; 

There is our captain : we '11 follow him that 's fled ; lo 

The thicket is beset ; he cannot 'scape. 

[Exeunt Sec. and Third Out 
First Out. Come, I must bring you to our captain's cave : 

Fear not ; he bears an honourable mind, 

And will not use a woman lawlessly. 
SU. O Valentine, this I endure for thee ! \Exeunt. i S 



"k 



SCENE IV. — Another part of the Forest. 

EnUr Valentine. 

How use doth breed a habit in a man ! 

This shadowy desert, unfrequented woods, 
i I better brook than flourishing peopled towns : 
• Here can I sit alone, unseen of any, 

9. with her\ thither Ff 3, 4. 1 1. Exeunt . . .] Exeunt Capell. 

Scene IK 

Another . . . Forest] Capell; The outlaw's cave in the forest Theobald. 
2. This shadowy desert^ Ff, These shadotoy, desert^ Collier MS. 

tribuna of the church of St. Apollinare ^ 

in Classe, near Ravenna, and is fairly ^cene IV, 

common in sixteenth-century English. 1-6. How use, etc] The sentiment 

The name Valerius is borrowed from and spirit of these lines are recalled by 

that borne by Felismena as page in the Ixuiished Duke in As You Like It, 

Montemayor*s tale, p. 289. Its rather 11. i. 2 sqq,^ " Hath not old custom 

odd conjunction with Moses is perhaps made this life more sweet | Than that 

meant to suggest the various nationality of painted pomp ? " Cf. with line 2, 

of the outlaw-band. As You Like It, il. vii. no- 1 12, "you 

9, 10. the west end . . . captaitt] This | That in this desert inaccessible, | 

allows us to suppose her captured at a Under the shade of melancholy boughs, 

point much further east, which might | Lose and neglect the creeping hours 

take her and Eglamour some time to of time " ; and with lines 5, 6, 11. v. 3, 

reach. See note on I v. i. Scene. 4, " And turn his merry note Unto the 

While she is being conducted back, sweet bird's throat." In Lyly's Woman 

Proteus is galloping from Milan, and in the Moone, ill. ii. 167, 168 occurs 

after rescuing her near the western edge *' Wilt thou for my sake goe into yon 

of the wood finds himself naturally groue, | And we will sing vnto the wilde 

within earshot of the captain's haunt. birdes notes," etc. 

II. Exeunt . . .] Capell's insertion 2. This shadowy desert,] The text 

brings out that isolation of Silvia with yields sense, "woods" being epexe- 

a single outlaw, which allows Proteus getic of "desert" ; cf. As You Like It, 

to effect her rescue. n. iv. 67, "this desert place"; but 

14. wi/t not use, etc] Cf. I v. i. Collier's MS. emendation, which makes 

72. " desert " an adjective, may be right 



sc.iv.] OF VERONA 103 

And to the nightingale's complaining notes $ 

Tune my distresses and record my woes. 

O thou that dost inhabit in my breast, 

Leave not the mansion so long tenantless, 

Lest, growing ruinous, the building fall. 

And leave no memory of what it was ! lo 

Repair me with thy presence, Silvia ; 

Thou gentle nymph, cherish thy forlorn swain ! 

What halloing and what stir is this to-day ? 

These are my mates, that make their, wills their law. 

Have some unhappy passenger in chase. 1 5 

They love me well ; yet I have much to do 

To keep them from uncivil outrages. 

Withdraw thee, Valentine : who 's this comes here ? 

Enter Proteus, Silvia, and Julia. 
Pro, Madam, this service I have done for you, 

14. These are my] Ff, These my rude Collier MS., ^Tis sure my Singer. 
18. Enter P., S., and J.] Rowe ; all separate entries omitted Ff, which enumerate 
characters at line i. 

5. nightingales complaining] Cf. quotes Sonnet 33, " And from the for- 
Lyl/s Campaspey v. i. 32, 33, " What lorn world his visage hide." I should 
Bird so sings, yet so dos wayle ? | O tis question whether i. ii. 125 is an in- 
the rauish*d Nightingale " : Philomela stance of similar accent. 

being supposed perpetually to recall 12. swain] For this pastoral sense of 

that outrage of Tereus which had pre- "lover" rather than merely "rustic," 

ceded her transformation to a nightin- cf. Polixenes of Florizel, Winter^ s Tale^ 

gale. Cf. the song(xxi.) in The Pas- iv. iv. 355, "How prettily the young 

sionate Pilgrim, "Tereu, Tereu," etc., swain seems to wash | The hand was 

and Cymbeline, ii. ii. 45, "the tale of fair before." 

Tereus." Shakespeare might read the 15. Have] The subject "who" is 

tale in Ovid, MeU vi. 553 sqq, omitted, as Dyce suggests ; an omission 

6. record] sing like a bird. Cf. easier because of "that "in the paren- 
Euphues, II. 58, line 7, "the byrdes thetic relative clause of the preceding 
recording the)nr sweete notes," and line. Cf. iv. iv. 78, "She loved me 
Woman in the Moone, ill. i. 79, well [who] deliver*d it to me." 

" Where warbling birds recorde our 15. passenger] traveller, wayfarer, as 

happiness." The "recorders" in iv. i. i, 72. 

Hamlet, ill. ii. 303, are flutes or flageo- 18. Enter Proteus . . . Julia.] A close 

lets. model can no longer be found in Monte- 

7. inhabit in] Cf. IV. ii. 47, " And, mayor's tale, which represents Celia as 
being helj)*d, inhabits there." Steevens djdng suddenly, Don Felix as quitting 
justly praised lines 7-10, and Malone the Court in despair, and Felismena as 
compared Comedy of Errors, ill. ii. 4, seeking him vainly for two years dis- 
" Snail love in building grow so ruin- guised as a shepherdess. At this point 
ate ? " — Cf. , too, Romeo and Juliet, ill. her narrative is interrupted by a sound 
ii. 26, "O, I have bought the mansion of combat. In a neighc)ouring islet in 
of a love, I But not possess'd it." the river a knight is defending himself 

12. forlorn] For the accent Rolfe against three others, of whom he has 



104 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actv. 

Though you respect not aught your servant doth, 20 

To hazard life, and rescue you from him 

That would have forced your honour and your love ; 

Vouchsafe me, for my meed, but one fair look ; 

A smaller boon than this I cannot beg, 

And less than this, I am sure, you cannot give. 25 

Vol. [Aside."] How like a dream is this ! I see and hear : 
Love, lend me patience to forbear awhile. 

Sil. O miserable, unhappy that I am ! 

Pro. Unhappy were you, madam, ere I came ; 

But by my coming I have made you happy. 30 

Sil. By thy approach thou makest me most unhappy. 

Jul. [Aside.] And me, when he approacheth to your 
presence. 

Sil. Had I been seized by a hungry lion, 

I would have been a breakfast to the beast. 

Rather than have false Proteus rescue me. 3 5 

O, Heaven be judge how I love Valentine, 

Whose life 's as tender to me as my soul ! 

And full as much, for more there cannot be, 

I do detest false perjured Proteus. 

Therefore be gone ; solicit me no more. 40 

Pro, What dangerous action, stood it next to death. 
Would I not undergo for one calm look ! 

26. [Aside.] Theobald; this! . . . hear:^ this? . . . heare: Ff; this . , . 
hear I Theobald, Camb. 32. [Aside.] Rowe, 2nd ed. 

killed one. Unerring arrows from use of the ordinary sense, line 32, re- 

Felismena*s bow dispose of the others, quires us to recc^;nise a special use 

and the rescued knight, unhelming, here. 

reveals the features of Don Felix. 37. tender] dear. Malone's instances 

Felismena then declares herself and re- of the active verb ** tender," to r^ard, 

proaches him with all the troubles she care for, are little to the point. The 

has passed through on his behalf, adjective is passive in sense, and the 

Overwhelmed with the justice of her only Shakespeare parallel I know is 

complaints and faint from loss of blood, Macbeth^ i. vii. 55 (ranged with this by 

Felix swoons, but, recovering, professes Schmidt), "know | How tender 'tis to 

repentance and a return of affection, love the babe that milks me." 
whereupon the pair are united. 39. Proteus'] trisyllable, as lines 54, 

20. respect] regard. 68, and eleven times in Acts I. and li. 

21. To hazardf etc] This infinitive 42. calm look] i.e. gentle, mild; as 
further defines "this service," line 19. Lucrece, 1508, of Sinon, "An humble 

31. approach] amatory advance, as I gait, calm looks, eyes wailing still," 
think Venus and Adonis ^ 386, "the and Romeo and Juliet^ ill. i. 70, "O 
warm approach of sweet desire." Julia's calm, dishonourable, vile submission." 



sc.iv.] OF VERONA 105 

O, 'tis the curse in love, and still approved. 
When women cannot love where they're beloved ! 
Sil. When Proteus cannot love where he's beloved 45 

Read over Julia's heart, thy first, best love. 
For whose dear sake thou didst then rend thy fsuth 
Into a thousands oaths ; and all those oaths 
Descended into perjury, to love me. 
Thou hast no faith left now, unless thou'dst two, 50 
And that 's far worse than none ; better have none 
Than plural faith which is too much by one : 
Thou counterfeit to thy true friend ! 
Pro. In love 

Who respects friend ? 
SiL All men but Proteus. 

Pro. Nay, if the gentle spirit of moving words 5 5 

\ Can no way change you to a milder form, 
j I 'U woo you like a soldier, at arms* end, 
I And love you 'gainst the nature of love, — force ye. 

49. Icve] deceive Yi 2-4. 57. wool F I, mcve Ff 2-4. 

43. still appraised] ever attested by ^.^. we have the two together in ^i^^rMr^f 

experience; Rolfe quotes Lear, 11. ii VL in. iL 175, "That rents the thorns 

155, "Good king, that must approve and is rent with the thorns," Ff ; Lyly's 

the common saw," i,e, furnish a proof Endimion^ v. iiL 42, ** my rented and 

or instance of, witness to. ransackt thoughts " ; Marlowe's Jew of 

47-49. didst then rend . . . loveme'] Malta, I. ii., "And rent their hearts, 

I leave the text, but not without sus- with tearing of my hair." " Re- 

picion. To rend feuth into the oaths sdnded," " re-mended," would be un- 

which express it is an image so forced Shakespearean; but not "cemented." 

(Silvia has used the exactly opposite and Mr. Daniel suggested "hail thy faith 

natural image, iv. iv. 135, 136, "new- . . . Discandied into perjury. To love 

found oaths, which he will break. As me | Thou," etc. — " To love me " mav 

easily as I do tear his paper ") as induced be final, or may mean " in loving me, ' 

elaboration to justify it. The faith, then, as ii. vi. i, " To leave my Julia shall I 

may be torn into yet smaller fragments, be forsworn."— Cf. Sonnet 152. 
or pieced into a new whole, perjury. 53, 54. In Icve Who respects friend r\ 

"Descended," if correct, means "dimin- So Euphues, determined to replace 

ished," of such further tearing (of course Philautus in Lucilla*s affections, I. 209, 

with the notion ofmoral descent as well), line 32, "where loue beareth sway, 

or else " cast down," of torn fragments friendshippe can haue no shew." 
thrown away. Since Shakespeare has 57. at arms* end] i.e, at sword's 

no other causative use of " descoid," it point. 

is perhaps a past participle (nom. abso- $8. force ye] Walker, noting the re- 
lute with "oaths"), or a new finite petition of " force " in line 59, and that 
intransitive verb with " oath" as sub- the metre of this line is " out of joint," 
ject. But I am not sure whether " Re- suspected a corruption ; but both re- 
rented" should not rather be read, petition and metrical disorder are 
" Rent" is a variant of " rend," found entirely natural to the crisis, 
pretty often in Lyly and in Shakespeare, 



< 



106 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actv. 

Si/. O heaven ! 

Pro. I '11 force thee yield to my desire. 

Val. Ruffian, let go that rude uncivil touch, 60 

Thou friend of an ill fashion ! 

Pro. Valentine 1 

Va/. Thou common friend, that 's without faith or love, 
For such is a friend now ; treacherous man ! 
Thou hast beguiled my hopes ; nought but mine eye 
Could have persuaded me: now I dare not say 65 
I have one friend alive ; thou wouldst disprove me. 
Who should be trusted now, when one's right hand 
Is perjured to the bosom ? Proteus, 
I am sorry I must never trust thee more, 
But count the world a stranger for thy sake. 70 

The private wound is deepest : O time most accurst, 
'Mongst all foes that a friend should be the worst ! 

Pro. My shame and guilt confounds me. 

Forgive me, Valentine : if hearty sorrow 

Be a sufficient ransom for offence, 75 

I tender 't here ; I do as truly suffer 

As e'er I did commit 

Val. Then I am paid ; 1 

And once again I do receive thee honest 

6^. treacherous] preceded by Thou F 2, Though F 3, Tho F 4. 67. now^ 
when] Ff 2-4 ; F I omitted now. 

62. common] ordinary, like the rest. extra syllable before the pause. With 

62. IheU *s] Malone rightly explains, some hesitation I scan il. ii. 19 on the 

not as relative, but as td est, defining same principles. For other instances 

** common." of extra-metrical syllables see Introduc- 

67. Who should de trusted, etc.]Com' tion, p. xiv (footnote), and S. "Walker's 
pare the language of Henry v. to the Shakespeare VersificcUion, ix. Twelve- 
traitor, Scroop, especially "thy £adl syllable lines must be admitted here 
hath left a kind of blot, To mark the and there in this play, e.g. I. i. 30, 11. 
full-fraught man and best indued | With i. 105, and perhaps li. iv. 62, though 
some suspicion," 1 1, ii. 138 ; and Cym- most of the apparent instances can be 
beline, ill. iv. 62, "thou, Posthumus, explained away. The poet had Brooke's 
I Wilt lay the leaven on all proper Alexandrines in his head. Johnson read 
men ; | Goodly and gallant shall be false " deep'st " and " curst," metri gratid : 
and perjured | From thy great fail." contracted superlatives at least are 
Johnson, with some probability, read, frequent ; Walker's Shakespeare Ver- 
" one's <7w« right hand," instead of m- sification, xxiii. Hanmer omitted 
serting " now " with F 2. "most." 

71. The private . . . accurst] Pro- 77. commit] sin. Cf. "Commit not 

fessor Herford avoids a twelve-syllable with man's sworn spouse," Lear, in, 

line by regarding "O" as an extra- iv. 83. 

metrical exclamation, and -est as an 78. receive] accept, acknowledge. 



sc.iv.] OF VERONA 107 

: Who by repentance is not satisfied 

Vis nor of heaven nor earth, for these are pleased. 80 

By penitence the Eternal's wrath 's appeased : 

And, that my love may appear plain and free, ., ' 

All that was mine in Silvia I give thee. — 
Jul. O me unhappy ! [Swoons. 

Pro. Look to the boy. 

Val. Why, boy! 

Why, wag ! how now ! what 's the matter ? Look up ; 
speak. 85 

Ju/. O good sir, my master charged me to deliver a 

ring to Madam Silvia, which, out of my neglect, 

was never done. 
Pro. Where is that ring, boy ? 
Jul. Here 'tis ; this is it 

Pro. How ! let me see : 90 

Why, this is the ring I gave to Julia. 
Jul. O, cry you mercy, sir, I have mistook : 

This is the ring you sent to Silvia. 
Pro. But how camest thou by this ring ? At my depart 

84. Swoons] Pope. 84-88. JVhy boy! . . . cUme] as four verses Capell ; 
here as Ff. 

83. All that . . . / ^ve thee] ue. in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, 
aU the love (line 82) that I felt in though there the revelation of her sex is 
Silvia's case I extend to thee. This is brought about, not by a swoon, but by 
Dr. Batteson's explanation, discussed danger of death, and is unfollowed by 
(and slightly varied on) in the Intro- any union with her beloved, 
duction, p. xxxvii. It seems at first to be 85. wflEf/] a recognised synonym for 
of that forced order of which examples boy, all boys being supposed full of fun 
are to be found in Warburton's notes ; and mischief, and the term being 
but, be it remembered, that it was ex originally short for "wag-halter." Cf. 
hypothesi Shakespeare's intention to Lyly's Mother Bombie^ ill. iv. 60 
introduce ambiguity, to make Valentine (Dromio speaking of the other pages, 
mean one thing, and Julia to suppose Halfpenny and Lucio), "Yonder stands 
he means another. the wags, I am come in good time." 

84. Swoons] The swoon, clearly 92. ^r^j^^w /«^r<7] I beg your pardon, 
intended by line 85, is possibly suggested Cf. Lyly's Mother Bombie, I v. ii. 28, 
by that of Don Felix in Montemayor, " I crie you mercy, I tooke you for a 
p. 308, when he hears Felismena's io)nid stoole," a proverb repeated in 
reproaches ; but more probably by that Lear^ ill. vi. 50. 

of Zelmane in the Arcadia^ Bk. ii. c. 23, 94. depart] Used by Shakespeare once 

which leads to her discovering herself to in each Part oi Henry VI, \ but first 

P)nrocles, whom for love's sake she has by Spenser in Faerie Queene (I590)> 

long served m the capacity of a page in. vii. 20, "lament for her depart," 

under the name of Daij)hantus. Julia, and by Lyly, Woman in the Moone 

or Zelmane, is the original of Bellario (composed, I think, 1593, after this 

(Euphrasia disguised as a page for love) play), in. i. 63, " Their sad depart" 



108 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [act v. 

I gave this unto Julia. 95 

Jul. And Julia herself did give it me; 

And Julia herself hath brought it hither. 

Pro. How! Julia? 

Jul. Behold her that gave aim to all thy oaths, 

And entertain'd 'em deeply in her heart. 100 

How oft hast thou with perjury cleft the root ! 

O Proteus, let this habit maJce thee blush ! 

Be thou asham^ that I have took upon me 

Such an immodest raiment, if shame live 

In a disguise of love ! 105 

It is the lesser blot, modesty finds. 

Women to change their shapes than men their minds. 

Pro. Than men their minds! 'tis true. O heaven, were 
man 
•But constant, he were perfect ! That one error 
Fills him with faults ; makes him run through all the 
sins : no 

Inconstancy falls off ere it begins. 
What is in Silvia's face, but I may spy 
More fresh in Julia's with a constant eye ? 

Vol. Come, come, a hand from either : 

Let me be blest to make this happy close ; 115 

'Twere pity two such friends should be long foes. 

99. ^oz^tf aim to] Lines 100, loi 1 10. Aim run] This '^him,^' sjod not 

require us to interpret as "served as " the," is the word that the metre 

mark for, object of," her heart being requires us to slur over, 

pierced or affected as well by oaths ill, /alls off ere it begins] wearies 

addressed to Silvia as to herself. But almost ere the passion is declared, 

under in. ii. 90, "direction-giver," I 112, 113. What is in Sihnds face^ 

have cited passages which show the etc] So Montemayor, p. 310, "Truth 

phrase originally used of one who it is, that I loued Celia well, and forgot 

guides the archer's aim by standing thee, but not in such sort that tiiy 

near the target and reporting on each wisedome and beautie did euer slide 

shot, and the part Julia has played in out of my minde ... it is cleere that 

regard to Proteus* suit to Silvia makes thine did farre excell hers and all the 

that sense, too, appropriate here. worlds beside." 

loi. cleft the root] i.e, of her heart, 115. close] union, but with a glance 

alluding to " cleaving the pin," or stud at the musical sense of harmonious 

marking the centre of the tsurget. Rolfe ending^where the discords are resolved 

quotes Rofneo and Juliet^ li. iv. 15, as in Hmry- V. I. ii. 182, and the sense 

" the very pin of his heart cleft with the of embrace (though only of battle in 

blind bow-boy's butt-shaft." Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, I. i. 13). — 

104, 105. if shame live . . . love] if Note the rhymes, lines 106-107, IIO- 

a disguise assumed for love's sake needs 113, 1 1 5-1 16. 
shame, as Johnson. 



sc. IV.] OF VERONA 109 

Pro. Bear witness. Heaven, I have my wish for ever. 
JuL And I mine. 

Enter Outlaws, with DuKE and Thurio. 

Out. A prize, a prize, a prize ! 

VaL Forbear, 

Forbear, I say ! it is my lord the Duke. 
Your grace is welcome to a man disgraced, 120 

Banished Valentine. 

Duke. Sir Valentine ! 

Thu, Yonder is Silvia ; and Silvia 's mine. 

VaL Thurio, give back, or else embrace thy death ; 
Come not within the measure of my wrath ; 
Do not name Silvia thine; if once again, 125 

Verona shall not hold thee. Here she stands : 
Take but possession of her with a touch : 
I dare thee but to breathe upon my love. 

Thu. Sir Valentine, I care not for her, I : 

I hold him but a fool that will endanger 130 

His body for a girl that loves him not : 
I claim her not, and therefore she is thine. 

Duke. The more degenerate and base art thou, 

To make such means for her as thou has done, 

126. Verona . • • koUil Ff, MUan . • . behold'] Theobald. 

118, 119. Forbear . . • Duke] Ff 124. tneasure] xesjAi oi my s^ox^ or 

print both " Forbeare *' 's as part of line anger (Johnson). 

119, and there is force in Malone's 126. Verona] Probably left in the 

remark that *'I say" confirms the text, for Milan, by Shakespeare's over- 



repetition of the word. But as twelve- sight. See note on 11. v. i. Mr. 

syllable lines are very unusual at this Craig well suggests " hold w^" (for 

period of Shakespeare's work, save for thee)^ i.e. hold me back ; cf. line 

special causes which seem inapplicable 123. 

here, I have followed Dyce in printing 128. / dare . . . love] Valentine's 

the first ''Forbear" as part of line prompt and passionate assertion of his 

118. S. Walker ( Versijica^ion, p. 269) rights in Silvia sufficiently negatives his 

suggests that it might form a line by supposed surrender of her at line 

itself, as exclamatory. 83. 

123. ^e back] give ground, yield. 134. make such means] i.e, ap- 

Apparentlyamixtureof ''give ground" proaches, efiforts. Rolfe quotes 

ana "go back," the latter used of retir- Cymbeline^ ii. iv. 3, where Posthumus, 

ing before a foe. Frequent in North's ¥ashing " to win the king," is asked, 

Plutarch^ e,g. Life ofSylla, ed. 1595, p. " What means do you make to him ? " 

505, "Marcus Teius ... naked and dis- and Mr. Craig, Montemayor's tale, 

armed of a sword, did not for all that p. 279, " But to see the meanes that 

give back, but stood till to it " (Craig). Kosina made vnto me," etc. 



110 THE TWO GENTLEMEN [actv. 

And leave her on such slight conditions. 135 

Now, by the honour of my ancestry, 

I do applaud thy spirit, Valentine, 

And think thee worthy of an empress' love : 

Know, then, I here forget all former griefs, 

Cancel all grudge, repeal thee home again, 140 

Plead a new state in thy unrivall'd merit. 

To which I thus subscribe : Sir Valentine, 

Thou art a gentleman, and well derived ; 

Take thou thy Silvia, for thou hast deserved her. 

Vol. I thank your grace ; the gift hath made me happy. 
I now beseech you, for your daughter's sake, 146 

To grant one boon that I shall ask of you. 

Duke. I grant it, for thine own, whatever it be. 

Vol. These banish'd men that I have kept withal 

Are men endued with worthy qualities : 150 

Forgive them what they have committed here, 
And let them be recall'd from their exile : 
They are reformed, civil, full of good, 
And fit for great employment, worthy lord. 

141. unrhfaird] F l, arrivard Ff 2-4, 

135. such slight conditions] sa<Ai easy a new state," i,e, found my kingdom 

terms, so easily. anew in you, alluding to his union with 

138. worthy of an empresi love] with Silvia, or create a new dignity or family 

special reference to Silvia his heir, in the person of yourself, or, simply, 

hardly present in the same phrase, confer fresh dignity on you. In the 

II. iv. 70. first case the antecedent of ** which," 

140. r^^^^z/] recall, as III. i. 234. line 142, will be *' statute," in the 

141, Plead a mw state] I caimot find second "merit." — The Cent. Diet, 
that "plead a state" is either an also mentions, without example, an 
ordinary or technical phrase for the obsolete use of "state" for "state- 
grant of any right, rank, title, estate, ment," " document," which would suit 
etc. — the mterpretation usually put "Plead." If "Plant" be adopted, 
upon this line, though nothing has been the further interpretation of " state " as 
urged in its support. Steevens, on "noble person, "dignitary," would 
Tyrwhitt's suggestion, placed a full perhaps be admissible, though^I know 
stop at " again/^ line 140, thus tun * 



„ , - . , turning it only as a plural ; cf. in Euphues, 

"Plead" into an imperative addressed i. 312, line 9, of Lucilla's fashionable 

to Valentine, which Singer interpreted friends, "she being in great credite 

as, " Put in a plea for reinstatement." with the states, died in great beggerie 

Rejecting this, I should interpret in the streetes." 
"plead (in excuse for my change) that 143. derived] as v. ii. 23. 
your exhibition of such merit creates a 149. kept withal] lived with, 
new situation " ; and if this be hardly a 153. They are reformed, etc J] Merely 

Shakespearean use of "state," then I a favourable statement of the effect of 

propose as emendations — (i) " Plead a his own discipline, and certainly incon- 

new statute," a legal metaphor, for sistent with lines 14-17 of this scene. 

" order of tWngs " ; (2) better, " Plant Cf. Introduction, p. xxvi. 



sciv.] OF VERONA 111 

Duke. Thou hast prevaird ; I pardon them and thee : 155 
Dispose of them as thou know'st their deserts. 
Come, let us go : we will include all jars 
With triumphs, mirth, and rare solemnity. 

Val. And, as we walk along, I dare be bold 

With our discourse to make your grace to smile. 1 60 
What think you of this page, my lord ? 

Duke. I think the boy hath grace in him ; he blushes. 

Val, I warrant you, my lord, more grace than boy. 

Duke. What mean you by that saying ? 

Val, Please you, I '11 tell you as we pass along, 165 

That you will wonder what hath fortuned. 
Come, Proteus ; 'tis your penance but to hear 
The story of your loves discovered : 
That done, our day of marriage shall be yours ; 
One feast, one house, one mutual happiness. ' 170 

[Exeunt. 

157. include] conclude Hanmer. 158. rare\ F i, all ¥{2-4. 

157, I w/«flfe] The sense " conclude " honour of whose birth these triumphs 
finds some support from the passage are." 

cited by Schmidt, Troilus and Cressidctt 159. And, as we walk cUong^ etc] 

I. iii. 119, " Then every thing includes Montemayor, j). 311, "And as they 

itself in power," where the context re- were going Felismena told Don Felix 

quires the sense " resolves itself into " ; with great ioy, what she had past since 

but the Latin sense "shut in," "close she had last seene him," etc. Cf. line 

in," suggested by Cooper, may be the 167. 

one, ue, overwhelm and efface. 166. wonder] sometimes not merely 

158. triumphs] pageants, pro- of the feeling, but its expression, 
cessions; or possibly in the special (Craig). 

sense of jousts or tournaments, in 166. fortuned] happened. A bolder 

support of which Rolfe quotes Richard use is the causative one quoted from 

//. V. ii. 52, "hold those justs and Antony and Cleopatra^ i. ii. 77, 

triumphs?" and Pericles, ii. ii. I, 5, "dear Isis, keep decorum and fortune 

"Are the knights ready to begin the him accordingly." 
triumph?" . . . "our daughter, | In 



APPENDIX I 

Account of "Julio und Hyppolita," 1620.^ 

Act I. Romulus, a young Roman, accepted by an Italian 
"Prince" (who corresponds to and might suggest Shake- 
speare's Duke) as the betrothed of his daughter Hyppolita, 
on his departure for Rome to acquaint his parents of the 
fact, entrusts her to the care of his "faithful friend and 
brother" and fellow-countryman Julius — "Romulus, Julius, 
zweene Romer " (JPersondy—ol whom he says, " From child- 
hood have we been faithful to each other " (cf. T. G. ll. iv. 
62 sqq^. As soon as he has reached Rome, he tells her, 
" wil ich euch mit Schrifften visitiren " (cf. I. i. 57-60, " To 
Milarr let me hear from thee by letters . . . And I likewise 
will visit thee with mine "). Julius is voluble in protestations, 
but does not see his friend off: he is himself in love with 
Hyppolita, and in a soliloquy after Romulus' departure 
frankly faces his contemplated treachery. 

" Now must I contrive my plan. Romulus, Romulus I a 
faithful friend art thou to me, 'tis true ; but now must I 
prove to thee what faithless brotherhood is. O ! lovely 
Hyppolita, what cannot thy fair form effect. 1 what 
cannot love accomplish " (cf. Proteus' soliloquy, II. vL). 

At the beginning of Act ll. Julius has received letters 
from Romulus for Hyppolita, but substitutes others forged 
by himself, in which he makes Romulus announce his 
marriage to another lady in Rome. (In ill. i. 249 Proteus 
falsely volunteers to convey letters from the exiled Valentine 
to Silvia, while in IV. ii. 1 1 1 he tells her, " I likewise hear 
that Valentine is dead.") Julius entrusts the forged letters 
to his servant Grobianus, who disguises himself as a mes- 
senger from Rome. Grobianus is " Pickelhering " or Clown ; 

^ The translation from which I quote was made by Miss Georgina Archer for 
Mr. Cohn's Shakespeare in Germany (1864), where it appears in parallel columns 
with the German text, pp. 1 13-156. 

8 



114 APPENDIX I 

and, like Speed, is particularly attentive to his fees as letter- 
carrier for all and sundry: his first appearance has been 
thought faintly suggestive of Launce. 

" Enter Grobianus ; his master whistles. He stands stilL 

Grob. May-be my master thinks he has a dog before him. 

[Julius whistles again.] Whistle away, I am not thy dog. 
/ul. Boy, hast thou not heard me call ? Wherefore dost thou 

stand so ? 
Grab. My lord, I heard no calling, but whistling, and thought 

your worship was whistling to his dog." 

Later he says he would slander his mother and father for 
money (cf. ll. iii. 16-19). 

In the next scene the Prince is taking counsel with Julius 
in regard to Hyppolita's melancholy in her lover's absence 
(cf. III. ii. 62, 63) when Grobianus arrives with the forged 
letters. Their contents known, Hyppolita tears hers in 
anger (cf. ll. ii.) ; while Julius shows to the Prince one in which 
Romulus appears to make a jest of him (cf. the Duke's 
capture of Valentine's sonnet), and the Act closes with ex- 
hortations to Hyppolita to banish the traitor from her heart 

In Act III. Julius commissions Grobianus to aid him in 
his wooing. 

" Thou art my trusty knave, therefore I use thee in my 
secret matters. Here, take this letter, bear it without 
delay to fair Hyppolita, convey to her my sweet greeting 
and humble service, unfold to her in many words how 
sick I am for love, how pitiably I bear myself." (Cf 
Proteus to " Sebastian," IV. iv. 68 sqq.) 

She rejects his overtures, giving Grobianus " einen Ducaten " 
for carrying her message back (cf. I. i. 137, "nothing at all 
from her; no, not so much as a ducat for delivering your 
letter"). 

The relations between the Prince and Julius in the next 
scene bear a certain resemblance to those of the Duke with 
Thurio and Proteus in III. ii. 

" Prince. Julius, my rare good friend, I have observed you 
duly and heard your suit for my daughter Hyppolita. 
It is known to you how Romulus was bound and 
betrothed to her, and how the perfidious wretch aban- 
doned her, and with what infamy and ridicule he covered 
both me and my daughter. For this reason I desire 
nothing better, than that she be married and get clear 



APPENDIX I 115 

of all this gossip. And as I acknowledge you to be 
quite worthy of her, I give my consent to the marriage. 
Nevertheless, as the matter does not lie in my will alone, 
but also in hers, my counsel is that you address yourself 
to her and disclose your love. 

JtiL Your grace (* Jhr Gn/) cannot conceive how rejoiced I 
am to hear it. I humbly entreat your grace C Jhr Gn.') 
to call her hither, that so your grace may lend your 
powers of persuasion, (Cf. III. ii. 20, 21, * Longer than 
I prove loyal to your grace | Let me not live to look 
upon your grace.') 

Prince, I hope fiiy suit will prosper. Ho ! Hyppolita, come 
here directly." 

For a long time she resists his pleading, and in an aside 
*' Ad spectatores " he exclaims — 

"What boots the perfidy I've practised on my most 
faithful friend on earth, who would have given his life 
for mine. Julius, Julius, what hast thou brought thyself 
to ! {Stands melancholy !\ (Cf. Proteus' soliloquy, IV. ii. 
1-15.) 

At last, however, she gives her consent to the match. 

At the beginning of Act IV. (the last) Romulus, returned 
from Rome with a faithful servant, hears of the new nuptials 
then in progress, finds the forged letter which Hyppolita had 
torn in two, and recognises Julius' hand. His indignation 
parallels Valentine's speech, V. iv. 62 sqq. Passing himself 
off as " a student from Padua " (no scene is named for the 
action of the piece, but N. Italy may be assumed : Speed's 
greeting of Launce, "welcome to Padua ! " left in our play by 
mistake, may be possibly significant), he joins the wedding 
festivities and takes part in a special dance with the bride- 
groom, in the course of which he reveals himself and stabs 
him. Hyppolita, without waiting to hear the story of his 
treachery, kills herself with the same dagger, and Romulus 
thereon follows suit. The Prince vows to " go into a dark 
savage wood and lead a hermit's life." 

I have given everything wherein the faintest resemblance 
to our play could be traced. The reader may be reminded 
here and there of the story of Romeo and Juliet. 



APPENDIX II 

Part of a Scene from Anthony Monday's "Down- 
fall OF Robert Earl of Huntington" (Act iii. 
Sc. ii.)— Dodsley's Old Plays ^ ed. Hazlitt, viii. 151-155. 

Enter Scathlock and SCARLET, winding their horns^ at 
several doors. To them enter ROBiN HooD, Matilda, 
all in green, SCATHLOCK'S MOTHER, MUCH, LITTLE 
John : all the men with bows and arrows. 



Rob. H. Peace, Much. Read on the articles, good John. 
Lit, John. First, no man must presume to call our master 

By name of Earl, Lord, Baron, Knight, or Squire ; 

But simply by the name of Robin Hood. 
Rob, H. Say, yeomen, to this order will ye yield ? 
AIL We yield to serve our master, Robin Hood. 
Lit, John, Next, *tis agreed, if thereto she agree, 

That fair Matilda henceforth change her name. 

And while it is the chance of Robin Hood 

To live in Sherwood a poor outlaw's life. 

She by Maid Marian's name be only call'd. 
Mat, I am contented ; read on, Little John : 

Henceforth let me be nam'd Maid Marian. 
Lit, John, Thirdly, no yeoman, following Robin Hood 

In Sherwood, shall use widow, wife or maid ; 

But by true labour lustful thoughts expel. 
Rob. H. How like ye this ? 

AIL Master, we like it well. 

Much, But I cry no to it. What shall I do with Jenny then? 
Scar. Peace, Much : go forward with the orders, fellow John. 
Lit, John, Fourthly, no passenger with whom ye meet 

Shall ye let pass, till he with Robin feast ; 

Except a post, a carrier, or such folk 

As use with food to serve the market towns. 
AIL An order which we gladly will observe. 

U6 



APPENDIX II 117 

Liu John, Fifthly, you never shall the poor man wrong, 

Nor spare a priest, a usurer or a clerk. 
Much. Nor a fair wench, meet we her in the dark ! 
Lit. John. Lastly, you shall defend with all your power 

Maids, widows, orphans, and distressed men. 
All. All these we vow to keep as we are men. 
Rob. H. Then wend ye to the greenwood merrily. 

And let the light roes bootless from ye run. 

Marian and I, as sovereigns of your toils. 

Will wait within our bower your bent bows' spoils. 
Miuh. I will among them, master. 

\J£xeunt winding their horns. 
Rob. H. Marian, thou seest, though courtly pleasures want. 

Yet country sport in Sherwood is not scant: 

For the soul-ravishing, delicious sound 

Of instrumental music we have found 

The winged quiristers with divers notes 

Sent from their quaint recording pretty throats. 

On every branch that compasseth our bow'r. 

Without command contenting us each hour. 

For arras hangings and rich tapestry 

We have sweet nature's best embroidery. 

For thy steel glass, wherein thou wont'st to look. 

Thy crystal eyes gaze in a crystal brook. 

At court a flower or two did deck thy head. 

Now with whole garlands is it circled. 

For what in wealth we want, we have in flowers. 

And what we lose in halls, we find in bowers. 
Mar. Marian hath all, sweet Robert, having thee, 

And guesses thee as rich in having me. 
Rob. H. I am indeed ; 

For, having thee, what comfort can I need ? 
Mar. Go in, go in. 

To part such true love, Robin, it were sin. \Exeunt, 

Enter PRIOR, SiR DoNCASTER, Friar Tuck. 
Etc etc. 



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